Will made by the company Intuitive Surgical. The

Will robots replace surgeons in the future? When? Would it even be possible? These questions have been repeatedly asked by many people in the past decade. Due to the rapid growth in technology at an exponential rate there is an endless possibility for technology in the health sector as already at the Royal Marsden they have been using for more than a decade the Da Vinci machine in order to assist with surgery. However, many people have also said that by using robots and machine there is still the risk factor for a malfunction during a surgery and that the patient may not be able to trust the machine as it is not human. So in the following paragraphs I will be showing both aspects of the question and conclude giving my overall opinion.To begin with, it is definitely possible the idea of autonomous robots replacing surgeons as currently many surgeons already use the Da Vinci machine which is a robotic surgical system made by the company Intuitive Surgical. The machine is designed to help with complex surgery using a minimally invasive approach and it is controlled by a surgeon. It has been used for several surgeries such as prostatectomies which is the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland and cardiac valve repair and gynecologic surgical procedures. There have already been over 200,000 surgeries conducted in 2012 and there have been over 3,803 installed worldwide as of September 30 2016. However, there has been a lot of criticism against the machine as it is said to be difficult for users to learn and as the system uses proprietary software which means physicians are not able to modify therefore it doesn’t give much freedom but these problems could easily be solved in the next couple years. Also by using robots there are several benefits during surgery as they have a high degree of dexterity which allows the surgeons to operate much more easily in very difficult parts of the body this would reduce the risks for accidents. Furthermore, as robotic surgery is minimally invasive therefore there would be smaller incisions during surgery which would result in less pain and scarring for the patient. As well, robotic surgery allows the surgeons to have greater visualization as they are viewing the surgery through a 3D camera attached to a fourth robotic arm which magnifies the surgical site this would give the surgery a better define view and it would reduce tension for the surgeon if it is a serious and complicated surgery. Examples of the benefits robotic surgery offers to the patients and surgeons:Shorter HospitalizationReduced Pain and DiscomfortFaster recovery time and return to normal activitiesSmaller incisions, resulting in reduced risk of infectionReduced Blood loss and transfusionsMinimal scarringHowever, the Da Vinci machine is not an autonomous robot (An autonomous robot performs behaviors or tasks with a high degree of autonomy) but an example of an autonomous robot used in hospitals and for medical purposes is the TUG automated delivery system it delivers medications which are scheduled or on demand to patients and keeps track of all the information about the delivery, this is ideal as it would reduce the stress and workload for the nurses who already have to help the doctors and surgeons around the hospital.(1)Another key factor for why autonomous robots should replace human surgeons is because of human error as even if we train the surgeons as much as we can there is still the risk. Therefore it would be better to have autonomous robots as for the long surgeries which take 16 hours etc would stop from mistakes and stop human errors from occuring. Currently we have not been able to produce robots that can carry out the surgery for humans but within a space of ten years we have been able to produce machines such as the Da Vinci Surgical System which already assist with complicated surgeries and the autonomous robot TUG therefore in the next 50 years or in the next century we could definitely be seeing autonomous robots carrying out complicated surgeries.On the other hand there are also several reasons why it would not be possible for autonomous robots to replace surgeons within the future, this is because even though it would be possible humans would not let it happen especially surgeons themselves would not enable this to happen because it will risk their job security and their purpose in the medical society. This is because being a surgeon is said to be at the top of the medical food chain but if these surgeons were to be replaced they would no longer have an input therefore they would try as much to not allow it to occur that is also the reason why hospitals preferred robots like the Da Vinci machine as it still gave the surgeons an important purpose in the surgery. An example of surgeons being against robots was when a multinational company for medical devices,pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886 known as Johnson & Johnson had tried to sell a robot which was made to make patients fall asleep for simple procedures however anaesthesiologists were against it and professional groups were against the device from being sold even when the Food and Drug Administration had approved the device. Even though it was allowed to be sold the Johnson & Johnson company slowly stopped selling the device around March 2016. Another reason, why robots may not be replacing surgeons this is because the costs to produce these robots would be in the millions which would be very difficult for government hospitals to buy from the manufactures and the hospitals may not want to risk it. Additionally, Ellen Vogels who is the DO of Geisinger had carried out research on seeing which type of surgery was better between humans and robotic. The study was carried out at the Geisinger medical Center in Pennsylvania, it had analysed 1248 cholecystectomies and 723 inguinal hernia repair otherwise known as IHR which was robot assisted operations. Both of these surgeries were the highest cost total which was said by Dr Vogels. The study found that the IHR had a total cost of 6292 dollars while the ASC based laparoscopy for IHR had cost 3421 dollars.Moreover, even great leaders of the technology industry such as Elon Musk who is the billionaire CEO of Tesla and SpaceX spoke to the National Governors Association that ,’There certainly will be job disruption. Because what’s going to happen is robots will be able to do everything better than us. I mean all of us’  this clearly shows that there is great fear to the human race for autonomous robots and this fear may even stop us from progressing therefore we might not have the chance of experiencing autonomous robots in the future.On the contrary, a recent study done by surgeons at Children’s National Medical Center a team had supervised an autonomous robot performing a soft tissue surgery stitching together a pig’s bowel during open surgery this shows that firstly there were not any malfunctions or issues caused by the robot and it had carried out the surgery much more better than a human surgeon as the stitching were much better than a professional surgeon.The surgery was carried out by the Smart-Tissue Autonomous Robot otherwise known as STAR, this is a huge breakthrough and success for the robotic side of the medical industry as it shows that if it is possible with a pig at this moment of time then it must be able within the near future. In conclusion, I believe that autonomous robots will certainly be carrying out the surgeries for humans in the future but not necessarily replacing surgeons as they still have an important role throughout the surgery such as comforting the patient, also helping the robot to finish the entire surgery successfully. Additionally, the surgeons would be required to supervise throughout the surgery in order to keep in check of the surgery and to inspect if there are any faults but they would act as secondary to the robot and to overall carry out the surgery safely and without any problems. Also, it would also be better to have the robots to carry out the surgery as it would reduce the number of deaths caused by human error during surgeries, especially in the UK as researchers from the University College London and Columbia University in New York had studiet 1000 surgery patients at a hospital in Manhattan and compared them with 1100 patients at the Queen Alexandra Hospital in Portsmouth, the results showed that just under 10% of British patients had died in hospital after surgery compared to America’s 2.5%. As well, already we have autonomous robots carrying out surgeries with animals therefore it will and must happen with humans in the next 50 years I believe and the benefits of having a robot to help carry out a surgery outweighs the negatives. Moreover, by using robots in surgeries they have been much more successful and much more efficient compared to humans carrying out the surgery since machines such as the Da Vinci machine which has been major successful with several thousands of surgeries in the past ten years and without it the mortality rate would have been significantly lower also machines such as the TUG are just the beginning and they are very useful as it reduces the effort for humans.