While whose motivation originates outside them, are more likely

While both integrative and instrumental motivations are important in thesuccessful learning of a second language, Norris-Holt (2001) believes that integrativemotivation is more important in second language acquisition. He goes as far as notingthat:…instrumental motivation has only been acknowledged as a significant fact insome research, whereas integrative motivation is continually linked to successfulsecond language acquisition. It has been found that generally students selectinstrumental reasons more frequently than integrative reasons for the study oflanguage. Those who do support an integrative approach to language study areusually more highly motivated and overall more successful in language learning.(p. 4-5)To a certain extent, Krashen (2009, p. 31) agrees with Norris-Holt, at least inemphasising that learners with high motivation generally do better in second languageacquisition and that this motivation is usually the integrative variety.It can be concluded that both integrative and instrumental motivations arefacilitators of successful second language acquisition, and the students who support anyof the two approaches to language study are usually successful in learning.15Cooper and Fishman (1977) further distinguish developmental motivation.Developmental or personal motivation refers to motivation relating to ?personaldevelopment or personal satisfaction, comprising leisure time activities, meant to fulfilyou at the very personal level: listening to /understanding music, watching movies andreading books in English? (p. 243).Another classification of motivation is that of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.According to Deci and Ryan (2000), this classification is premised on the assumptionthat while some motivations come from influences inside of the individual, others areattained from the outside world. Intrinsic motivation is present when the individualdesires to seek out and observe new things and challenges in order to gain knowledge.While intrinsic motivation is generally regarded as a natural tendency and willingness tolearn, extrinsic motivation commonly comprises motivators originating from outsidesuch as rewards and admiration. Oxford and Shearin (1994, p. 20) believe that althoughall of the above mentioned types of motivations are important in language learning, it ismostly intrinsic motivation that enables learners to achieve the desired results. To put itdifferently, it can be assumed that the learners whose motivation comes from the inside,as opposed to those whose motivation originates outside them, are more likely tobecome proficient in the target language.Brown has been one of the main proponents of emphasising the importance ofintrinsic motivation in the second language acquisition. He argues that in traditionalschool settings dominates motivation, which usually ?focuses students too exclusivelyon the material or monetary rewards of an education rather than instilling anappreciation for creativity and for satisfying some of the more basic drives forknowledge and exploration? (Brown, 1994, p. 40). In contrast, ?an intrinsically oriented