Table of Contents
5- SMART CITY………………………………………………………….9
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a recent communication
model that visualizes a near future, in which computing will be outside the
domain of traditional desktop and the objects and devices of everyday life will
be equipped with transceivers, sensors, radio frequency detectors,
microcontrollers, actuators etc. for digital communication 1.IoT will allow
devices to share data and information with one another and with the users,
becoming an integral part of the Internet 2. IoT will lead to the development
of a large number of applications that will provide new services to citizens, companies,
and public administrations by collecting and analyzing data patterns from
potentially huge amount and variety of data generated by objects and devices
that we use in our everyday life. This prototype indeed finds application in
many various domains, like intelligent energy management and smart grids,
industrial automation, medical aids, mobile healthcare, elderly assistance,
automotive, home automation, traffic management, and many others .IoT platforms
can help organizations reduce cost through improved process efficiency, asset
utilization and productivity. The aim of this empirical study is to cater
information related to opportunities for human race on implementation of IoT
and the challenges that IoT will face during its implementation
The increase in the number of vast variety of smart
devices enabled with multiple sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope,
magnetometer, proximity sensor, fingerprint detector to name a few has resulted
in an exponential increase in the volume, variety, velocity and veracity of
data , leading to the advent of a new wave of computing driven by IoT and big
data. Over 12.5 billion devices were already connected in 2010 and about 50
billion devices will be connected by 2020 3.
FIGURE 1. Number of devices versus Year Graph
The coming era of Internet of things will connect each
and every device in its way to a huge shared database which will enable data
analysts to study and recognize data patterns and make our lives automated,
easier, and smatter than ever. Today not much is known about the impacts of IoT
service to consumer behaviour. From the consumer point of view, IoT is both
opportunity and possible danger. Given the importance of understanding consumer
for successful IoT service spread in the market, it is critical to research
major factors and dynamics affecting IoT consumer attitude.
The real challenge for IoT environment is how to analyze
the large file of information from all sources and take action in real time
,the complexity of Internet of Things combined with high expectation created by
internet , mobile devices and 24×7 IT environment has made the need new
analytics approaches and technologies more urgent. Achieving desired business
objectives requires the ability to act in real time to take advantage of
opportunities and address problems quickly .In Pre-Internet of Things era an
issue of typical supply chain problem could take two to three day cycles to
resolve the problem and obtain satisfactory results, but in Internet of Things
time to action is in minutes , seconds, or microseconds for example it should
not take more than thirty minutes for provisioning electric service, not more
than thirty seconds to act on information from devices ,and not more than 5
milliseconds to address a security breach. Connectivity of devices and servers
seems pretty easy from a distance but there’s a lot more to deal with as when
we deploy out these connected devices globally, we have hundreds of thousands
of devices connected over multiple networks of internet, cell towers, proxy
servers, firewall, and lots of things that disrupt our connectivity, listed
below are the major challenges faced by IoT :
Signaling: When multiple devices are connected to each other the
data they absorb or generate becomes important, we want to have reliable
signalling or transmission of data because sometimes these devices will be
talking to the server to collect data or sometimes the sever needs to talk to
the devices and sometimes these devices need to talk to each other but in any
of the case there may be an issue in going through tunnels or connectivity
drop-off , thus there should be reliable way to know that when stream of data is sent its going to arrive
successfully on the other side all the time.
Security: When data stream is sent or received over a device it should be made
sure that the device has the authorization to receive or send that data. The
network should be able to deal with open ports, the devices sending and
receiving data should not have open ports over the internet as there will be
chances of data being tempted to hack attempts through these open ports
,furthermore it will be complicated to predict the device listening through
open ports. There should be a bidirectional communication but there shouldn’t
be any open ports. Most importantly the data being send or received over these
IoT devices should be encrypted. There should be end-to-end encryption
Active listening: There should be a mechanism to know if the devices is
active or not while sending or receiving the signal ,for example if there is a
connectivity drop-off issue then then the transmission of data should be held
still unless the device regains its
connectivity, so that there is no loss of data .
Power Consumption: Power Consumption is one of the
major factors that holds back IoT from global adoption. The IoT devices should
consume less power even with all the services they provide.
Processor Consumption: The devices should not just reduce power consumption
but also the CPU or the processor consumption should be as small as possible.
The device should not drain off hundred percent of its CPU in signaling and
transmission of data.
Bandwidth: The devices should be able to do all these stuffs
with low bandwidth not only because high bandwidth will be expensive but also
because imagine hundreds of thousands of devices sending requests, response,
signals back to the server then there may be a huge server issue as the server
tries to absorb all these data.
IoT refers to the connection of devices to the
internet via Internet Protocol in which each and every device has a unique id .The
Internet of things digitizes physical assets ,sensors, devices , machines
gateways and network, it connects people to things and things to things in real
Many industry experts and excited consumers imagine
Internet of Things as the next revolutionary concept in the IT industry because
it will be the future of the way business, governments and consumers interact
with the physical world.
The Internet of Things is a scenario in which objects
and people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to
automatically transfer data over a network without requiring human to human or
human to computer interaction that is everything is connected over IP and will
interact with each other based on predefined logic. Example the air compressor
of the refrigerator can send notification to the manufacturing company when it
requires a service or when the amount of gas filled in the compressor falls
below the critical level, the company in turn will contact the nearest service
station and will send a suitable person to resolve the issue, thus saving the
consumer from the burdens of contacting the service center and saving his/her
The keyword in Internet of things is “things” , here
things include people and animals which
means that in future even if the people might be connected to object like
health equipment’s or household appliances .IoT describes a system wherein items in the physical world and sensors
within or attached to these items are connected to the internet via a wireless
or wired internet connection . In short
the Internet of things will connect both inanimate and living things , use
sensors for data collection, then identify track and communicate with objects
over IP network .
Impacts of Internet of things will be:-
Platforms: The things will get increasingly expensive as compared
to now as the will have to be fitted with multiple sensors to monitor changes
and collect data .Applications of a particular “thing” will multiply.
Standards and Ecosystems: IoT devices will spread widely, because of this new
ecosystems will emerge and there will be commercial and technical battles
between these ecosystem .These ecosystems will dominate the areas such as the
smart home, smart city and health care.
Event Streaming Process: Some IoT applications will generate extremely high
data that must be analysed in real time .Systems creating tens of thousands of
data and event per second will be common and millions of events per second can
occur in telecom industry due to this sharing of transferring of data
Operating Systems: Today there are wide range of operating system out
here like android, ios , windows , linux etc but there will be more Operating
systems like these that would be designed for specific purposes.
Processors and Architecture: Deep technical skills will be required
for designing devices within understanding like processors that may handle
multiple specific and filed oriented tasks
Smart City Concept and Services
FIGURE 2.Internet of things Smart City
The IoT vision can become the building block to
realize a unified urban-scale ICT platform, thus unleashing the potential of
the Smart City vision 4,5.By 2050 seventy percent of the world’s population
would be living in cities covering less than two percent of the earth’s
surface, the cities have never been so challenged and the trend continues to
grow ,this raises many issues like pollution , infrastructure access , traffic
congestion, mobility , safety, healthcare are few examples. The development and
combination of new technologies such as Internet of things and artificial
intelligence offer a solution to Smart City.
Smart Cities are hybrid connected cities,
technologically equipped to improve the lives of the residents’ .This section
overview some of the services that are of potential interest in context to
Smart City that might be enabled by an IoT prototype. Listed below are few of
Waste Management: Waste management is one of the major issues in modern
cities because of two factors, which are the storage of garbage in landfills
and the service cost. Use of intelligent waste containers, can reduce the waste
collection and improve recycling quality as these containers would detect the
level of load and allow for optimization of the recycling.
Traffic Congestion: Today we already have camera-based traffic monitoring
system, but in near future traffic monitoring can be done by using the sensing
capabilities and GPS installed on modern vehicles 6.The traffic information
will be of great importance for city authorities to discipline traffic and also
for the citizens to plan in advance the best available route to reach the
Smart Parking: It is based on intelligent displays and road sensors
that direct motorists along the best path for parking, as it help in locating
parking slot faster which saves the citizen’s time and also emit less carbon
mono-oxide into the atmosphere .Furthermore using technologies, such as Radio
Frequency Identifiers (RFID) of Near Field Communication (NFC), it is possible
to provide reserved slots for residents or disabled with the help of an
electronic verification system of parking.
Automation of Public Buildings: By monitoring the energy consumption of
the environment in public buildings such as schools, museums, offices with the
help of various sensors and actuators that control temperature, humidity and
light, it is possible to enhance comfort level and reduce wastage of energy.
Smart Lighting: Optimization of street lighting is an
important feature of IoT Smart City concept .This service can optimize the
street light intensity according to time of day, presence of people and weather
condition with use of sensors like proximity sensor .In addition street light
controllers can be easily installed with fault detection system.
Is the future of Internet of Things really bright?
IoT is a very simple concept in which we allow
machines and instruments to talk to each other in order to provide real time
data relevant to modernize living style and make our surrounding smatter. By
2020 there would be approximately 50 billion IoT devices or maybe more. These
IoT devices will definitely make our lives better and our smartphones will be
the center hub to control these devices.
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