This irresponsible behavior such as smoking, drinking,

This chapter presents the conclusion and recommendations of the study. It provides summary of the main findings of the study with regard to objectives and their accompanying questions. It also gives the recommendations.
7.2 Conclusion
This study aimed at examining the influence of peer pressure and school environment on students’ academic performance at the University of Zambia. Peer influence has both negative and positive impact on students’ academic performance. As most of scholars focus on positive peer pressure, this study looked at negative peer pressure Negative impacts include identity loss and individuality. It also makes one feel unhappy, unwell or uncomfortable. Negative impacts of peer pressure leads to irresponsible behavior such as smoking, drinking, and engagement in illicit sexual behavior among others. Other negative impacts of peer pressure include as unbearable burden in a bid to advance in living the lifestyle of peers.
Students give in to peer pressure because they want to be accepted and fit in a group. They also join peer groups to learn and handle with new changes brought by modernization such as technological change and the need for new skills. When they are exposed to a different environmental setting, there are traits that are adopted that influence decision making. Peer groups allows students to take positive risks and test out values and opinions of others, test out their strengths and weaknesses, feel safe and enhance their self-confidence, explore new things, other interesting activities, feel understood and accepted by others going through the same phase and improve their ability to make personal choices. The study also found out other factors additional factors that trigger peer pressure and these are; lack of proper guidance, broken homes, globalization, anxiety, sexual desires, ignorance, poverty, need to belong, low self-esteem, political affiliation, income bracket and social status.
A number of students unknowingly make decisions based on peer pressure. It kills and gives rise to a set of students who are merely clones of each other.
During the answering of the questionnaire and the interviews, it was found that the main key stakeholders to minimize peer pressure is through counselling of parents because they are the ones that know how their child is and most of students tend to listen better to their parents than any other person.
The study findings indicate that school physical facilities such as classrooms, school library with relevant books, science laboratories with apparatus and chemicals and sports grounds had a significant and positive influence on students’ academic performance on students the study concludes that adequacy of physical facilities has a significant positive relationship with levels of students’ performance. This means that universities with adequate physical facilities are likely to have a healthy school climate which is likely to bring the better performance among students. Those with inadequate physical facilities, on the other hand, are likely to create a negative school climate which is likely to lead to low levels of students’ academic performance.
7.3 Recommendations
Based on findings and conclusion of this study, the following recommendations are made:
i. Since attitudes develop and change throughout life, lecturers and parents need to know how they can be improved and instructed in order to be able to instill favorable ones in the students.
ii. The school management must make guidance and counselling departments active for the purpose of counselling peer-groups.
iii. Lecturers, parents, students, counsellors and education planners, should be aware of the role played by peer-group relations in students’ academic performance.
iv. Appropriate school authorities should enable to provide a conducive school environment that has good climate for effective teaching and learning. Such environment should be safe, students treated fairly by teachers and happy to be in school as well as feel they are a part of the school.
v. The Government to improve the school facilities at the University of Zambia so that learning is enjoyed and this will serve as a motivation for student to want to learn.