There to the high demands and more

There are many effects of
heat transfer issues to our world. One of it include the rising of demand for
water usage during sweltering climate. According to Christopher, water is an
extremely regular used to cool down other metal structures susceptible to heat
failure such as bridge especially in a heat waves. This causes serious
shortages of water supply in many affected areas. This additionally can add to
flame restraint issues for both urban and rural fire departments. On the other
hand, the rise in water temperature during heat waves will cause the
degradation of water quality and a lot of bad effects for fish and aquatic
can likewise prompt the death or lop-sidedness of numerous different organisms
in the lake, river and sea ecosystem. High temperatures because of high heat discharged
are also additionally contributed to unlimited algae growth, causing fish death
in rivers and lakes. Thus, the extremely heat released from industry area will
contribute to water pollution. Besides, according to Dan, the continuous of raising
of heat also support to the more usage of energy consumption. This because
human will use more energy for cooling purpose to withstand hot weather. Hence,
the combustion of fossil fuels will become more frequent due to the high
demands and more heat will be generated to the environment.


Heat exchanger is one of the common heat
transfer application used in industry. Sadik (2002) stated that heat exchanger
is an efficient and productive gadget device constructed for the efficacious
heat transfer between two fluids with various temperatures. The material which are
often used to isolate the fluid is a solid wall which must be a strong divider
with function to prevent mixing and in direct contact between two fluids. Heat
exchangers are very wide used in biochemical processing industries, food
processing industry, pharmaceuticals aspect, dairy industries, chemical plants
and also petroleum plants industry. The use of heat exchangers in bioprocess
industry is popular which is from high temperature pasteurization to low
temperature which is freezing.


Based on Padmakshi (2013), got some type of
heat exchangers which include shell and tube heat exchangers, plate heat
exchangers, plate & shell heat exchangers, plate fin heat exchangers,
dynamic scraped surface heat exchangers, phase change heat exchangers and
double pipe heat exchangers.


In fact, P. Raskovic (2010) mentioned that the theory of heat exchanger involved the
heat transfer between two fluids with different temperature. Both two fluids
are in a very close contact with each other however there are separated from
mixing by a physical obstruction which like solid wall. The temperature of the both
two fluids will soon achieve to an equilibrium temperature through the heat
transfer. The energy and heat from each fluid is exchanged or transfer from the
hot to cool media and no heat generate which mean no extra heat is added or
removed. The heat exchangers must be designed and build to suit for all the
cases that would happen by heat exchange and the performance also need to be
the best suited for all conditions due to the not constant of heat in the heat
exchange process and the not constant of the heat amount of the fluids. Furthermore,
the design also need to be like the heat exchange is at a specific rate needed
by the condition of the process. Originally, heat exchanger is created to be additional
oversized for the cases of fouling occur. The surface of heat exchanger is also
needed to be additional large for sufficiently substantial to carry out
operations. For example, Heat exchanger can be used in food industry for cooling
prupose of various products. Kravanja (2012). Products such as hazelnut pastes and various types of
food pastes also required to be cooled down first or heated up before proceeding
to the further process. The type of Heat Exchanger used is a Scraped Surface
Heat Exchanger. The Scraped Surface Heat exchanger is designed and created for
processing different high viscosity materials for example food and heat
exchanging of a many variety of products which sensitive to heat such as fruit


Fouling of heat
exchanger is a long term operational problem that compromises energy recovery
and environmental welfare in industries. According to H. Muller (2009), fouling
in flow channels, tubes, or other parts in processing equipment may create a
lot of major operating problems such as decrease of heat transfer,
under-deposit corrosion, raising of pressure loss, and also flow
maldistribution. These problems may contribute many negative impacts on expenses,
safety, health, and environmental issues. Meanwhile, for environment aspects,
fouling of heat exchanger will cause the increased of hazards released during
operation and cleaning, increased in the consumption of electricity, water, fossil
fuels, and other resources that are needed for cleaning, increased
environmental hazards and emissions. The environmental issues related to the
released of harmful chemical fouling inhibitors, method of disposal of chemical
wastes, CO2 emissions and land or water pollution cause by
operations of heat exchanger also have been pointed out.


Routbort et al.
(2009) stated that used nano?uids for cooling
purpose could result in good energy savings and resulting emissions reductions.
replacement of cooling and heating water with nano?uids has the more potential
to conserve energy. Furthermore, using nano?uids as agent in closed-loop
cooling cycles could also save more energy than using water as coolant. By this
way, the consumption of energy can be decrease efficiently, and less natural
sources will be used to generate energy. The
replacement of nanofluid also able to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide
(CO2), nitrogen oxides, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from industry area. This can
help to save environment from the released of harmful gases and greenhouse