The term “architectural space” is used in the professional activities of designers and architects, for example, in relation to open urban spaces. Space is important in other areas of architecture and design, especially in interior design. The problem of architectural space is central to the designer and the architect. The essence of architecture lies in the artificial delimitation of natural space.
Architecture is an artificially created material-spatial environment with aesthetic qualities. The architectural environment consists of components – mass, space, state of the environment, light, acoustics, air movement. The concept of “architectural space” consists of a spatial shape, fencing planes and equipment items. The architectural space is visually limited in the form of a specific spatial form.
The absolute value of the space in the interior is mentally commensurate with the number of people who will be in the room. For each person, a “motor space” is allocated, which is a conditionally limited part of the total space for a particular person. Individual (motor) space is studied by ergonomics.
As part of the architectural space, the individual space of a person forms groups and zones. For example, in a hotel there are administrator zones, a waiting zone. The architectural space is always socially definite; it is based on the process – trade, study, accommodation, life.
The concept of closed or open space defines the relationship between architectural spaces and natural. “Closed space” means the physical isolation of the created space from the natural to ensure protective functions. “Open space” is located directly in natural conditions.
The concept of internal and external space determines the position of the place of one space relative to another. For example, a street is an external space in relation to a building. There is a term “urban interior”, or “interior of open spaces”. Even the interior of a building can be divided into internal and external zones. The architectural space has an important property of orientation and focus, the dynamics of its development. Orientation is associated with the physical characteristics of a person by gravity, position in the physical space, with the concepts of bottom, top, front, back, side. The directionality of space is expressed by the concepts “low-high”, “narrow-wide”, “short-extended”
The environment of open spaces usually differs from the environment of interiors by special ways of organizing the function and appearance:
a) large sizes – no less than an order of magnitude – determine the specific conditions of perception (blurring of long-range plans, “conventionality of fences”, “scented” construction of the deep composition), new sense of the scale of space;
b) landscape components: greens, sky, playing a very active role in shaping the appearance;
c) a function in an open space becomes complex (the main street is like a communication channel, a public shopping center and a symbol of the city at the same time).
All these features make the design of open spaces an independent section of environmental design.
Open spaces of the city >
Architectural open spaces include those objects in the design of which their artistic features are consciously taken into account – including buildings, structures, special ones, with an understanding of the role of the aesthetic principle, processing of volumes and surfaces that make up spatial solutions, etc., therefore, in this category, first all, in addition to special landscape and engineering and natural formations (parks, dams, etc.), all open urban spaces