The political impact of Mongol rule was much more significant on the Chinese than it was on the Russians.Fundamentally, the Mongols were nomadic and the Chinese and Russians sedentary. Led by Genghis Khanand motivated by very real economic means, the Mongols established the largest land empire ever known.China lies just south of Mongolia, and was ruled directly by the Mongols. By great contrast, Russia was acold, more resource-poor area that was ruled by a number of independent princes. The Mongols did not rulethem directly but rather, upon defeating them, let them be so long as they remained under Mongol controland paid taxes to the Mongols. The Mongols allowed them to continue to practice Christianity and let theprinces maintain rulership in most respects. In China the Mongols defeated the imperial armies andestablished themselves as direct rulers. Civil service exam became less important and Mongol rulers taxedthe people heavily. It boils down to the fact that the Mongols exerted much more influence over Chinesesovereignty, culture, and policy than they did over the Russians.Economically, the effects were similar. In both regions, the Mongols taxed the populace. The tax wascomparable in amount and served the Mongols similarly. Mongol rule, however, did bring some economicboon to the whole region. The Mongol empire established a network that allowed for easier long distancetrade, with respect to goods, technology, and ideas. As early as 1200, the Mongols were experimenting withgunpowder in China and its export via the Mongol empire was good for the Chinese markets. With buyers asfar away as the Middle East, trade was facilitated by Mongol maintenance of the larger empire andsubsequent peace that allowed for easier trade. Such ease of trade is characteristic of imperialism, establishednetworks and prevailing peace in Asia and the Middle East allowed for such trade. Although being part of theempire, Russia did benefit by finding a larger market for its chief export, fur, because the Mongol presencewas felt less the benefit was notably less. Comparatively, all of the positive AND negative effects felt in bothregions were amplified in China but diminished in Russia. The exception to this was the bubonic plague,which the Mongols helped spread. It began in China, but it was largely the Mongol mail system that helpedbring it to many parts of Russia, so in this way Russia did suffer as a result of Mongol rule whereas Chinawould probably have suffered either way.