The of grains, seed weight, seed volume, seed length

The
crop losses during the process of harvesting threshing transportation and
storage of food grains are quit considerable. There are two type of factor
biotic and abiotic which cause the losses during harvesting examples biotic
birds, abiotic rain , time to harvest, machine age, forward speed of harvester
. The main objective of the present study is to determine the losses by comparing
the seed samples collected from the field at different places per meter square after
harvesting with the stored seed samples of the same varieties for this purposes
15 seed samples are collected from 5 varieties of wheat by collecting 3 samples
from each variety. These samples were taken from different sites, 1st sample
was collected from harvested area, 2nd was taken from the clean
area, 3rd was taken from the empty tank area. Then we will compare
these samples with each other on the basis of different parameters i.e number
of grains, seed weight, seed volume, seed length and width. These comparisons
will be done to find the maximum and minimum loss during harvesting.

Introduction:

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Wheat
(Triticum
aestivum) in one of the major crops used for edible pupose in the
world. Wheat is valueable cereal cultivated in the different parts of world
(Carvalho, et al., 2013) along with
other cereal such as rice, maiz, oat, millet, barley, sorghum and burkwheat.
There are many uses of wheat and its by product such as chapatti in asian
countries. Wheat bran have high amount of antioxidents. Wheat crop is important
beacause it contribute 20 percent in world’s food calories. The food  which we can get from wheat are bread, pasta,
muffins and cakes etc ( Ishfaq, et al.,
2017).

Grown
all over the world, wheat covers more of the earth’s surface than any other
cereal crop. However, although it takes more land space than other cereals,
based on a three year average it is only the third-largest cereal crop, behind
maize and rice. The domestication of grains and the development of agricultural
lifestyles led to significant changes in people’s lives, encouraging permanent
settlements, the development of civilization, and trade. Wheat’s domestication
produced larger grains and a more productive crop, which could not have
survived in the wild and required continued intervention of farmers
intentionally planting it. (Wroot et al.,
2001)

As
one of the first grains to be domesticated, modern wheats developed from cultivation
starting in the middle-east about 9-11,000 years ago in the fertile crescent of
the middle-east. Without a clearly identifiable timeframe, the Neolithic period
is identified by the domestication of crops and animals, which began with the
development of farming, and endured until the development of metal tools. By
4,000 BC the expanding geographical range of farming resulted in bread wheat
becoming a common staple from England to China. Although rice was more
important to the development of East Asian cultures, wheat was the nutritional
foundation for cultures in Europe, the middle-east and western Asia. (Wroot,
S., Pinkersgall, D., and “Oz” et
al., 2001). 

Wheat
was introduced in Mexico by the Spaniards around 1520, and to early American colonists
in the 1600’s. At that time it was not popular in New England due to the soils
and climate, but in the mid 1800’s wheat was grown from seeds introduced by
migrating Europeans and agricultural scientists in the area that would later be
called the “Wheat Belt.” The 1830’s saw the development of the
reaping and threshing machines, allowing farmers to greatly increase their productivity
during harvest. The development of the steam engine in the 1880’s and the
internal combustion engine in the 1920’s increased farmer productivity during
both planting and harvest, and as a result wheat fields became larger. Wheat is
generally grown intended for food for humans, but lesser quality wheat and the
nutrient-dense by-products of flour refining are used for animal feed. Wheat is
also used for whiskey and beer production, and the husk can be separated and
ground into bran (1, 6). Before the introduction of corn into Europe, wheat was
the principal source of starch for sizing paper and cloth. (Oz et al,. 2001) , (Beuerlein, j et
al., 2001).

Soft
wheat varieties have starchy kernels (less gluten) which mill easier than the
hard wheats. Soft wheat flour is preferred for piecrust, french bread, biscuits,
and breakfast foods. Hard wheats have higher protein and gluten levels than
their softer cousins, and are used for bread, cakes and flour. The hardest
wheat is durum (T. durum), whose flour is used in the manufacture of macaroni,
spaghetti, and other pasta products. Soft wheats and white wheats usually bring
higher prices because they are easier to mill and don’t require bleaching. (Beuerlein, j et al., 2001)

The
six major classes of wheat are listed below.

Hard Wheat:

Hard red winter wheat
is a high protein wheat used mostly for breads and all-purpose flour, and as an
adjunct in other flours to increase protein content. This class of wheat
accounts for more than 40% of the U.S. wheat crop and half of U.S. wheat
exports.

Durum wheat
is a spring wheat, and may be either white or red. It is the hardest of all
U.S. wheats, offers both high protein and high gluten content, and used to make
the semolina flour used for premium pasta products and some Mediterranean breads.

Hard red spring wheat
is the highest protein wheat, and is used for bread, hard baked goods,
all-purpose flour, and flour blends.

Hard white wheat
is medium protein grain that is closely related to red wheat except for color,
in milling and baking qualities. However, it offers a milder, sweeter flavor,
and is used in yeast breads, hard rolls, bulgur, tortillas, oriental noodles,
whole wheat and all-purpose flowers, and used in brewing. It is the newest
class of wheat to be grown in the United States. (Beuerlein, j et
al., 2001)

Soft Wheat:

Soft red winter
wheat has a low to medium protein content, and is used for breads and blending.
It is used to make cookies, cakes, donuts, and other fine pastries as well as flat
breads, and crackers.

Soft white wheat
is a low protein wheat, but offers high yields to growers. It provides a whiter
product for high quality cakes, crackers, cookies, pastries, and Asian-style
noodles (bakery products other than breads), and is ideally suited to Middle Eastern
flatbreads. (Oz et al,. 2001) , (Beuerlein, j et al., 2001)

Factors
affecting seed quality of pre and post-harvest seed: Precipitation prior to harvest can result in to pre-harvest
germination. It is also result in to attack of fungi Cladosporium and
Alternaria. Immature seed harvesting having lot of moisture develop microflora
grown in the seed lot. If mechanical damage occurs during cleaning, dressing
with chemicals, seed treatment, bagging, transportation of seed result in to
lost the seed quality. 12% is the ideal moisture for harvesting of wheat. The
correct chemical and doses are used when seeds are treated with fungicides and
insecticides. Otherwise seed may show symptoms of phytotoxicity.

Review of
Literature:

Sattar
et al., (2015) studied that grain losses of wheat affected by different
harvesting and threshing techniques at Adaptive Research Farm, Vehari during
2010-11. Three methods of harvesting and threshing i.e. i) manual plus thresher
ii) reaper plus thresher and iii) combine harvester were used in the study. The
data exposed that   different harvesting
and threshing techniques had huge impact on grain losses of wheat. The
harvesting losses with manual plus thresher and reaper plus thresher at the
field level were observed to be 164.37kg ha-1 and 142.93 kg ha-1accounting for
3.16% and 2.76%, respectively of wheat grain yield. Total grain losses during
harvesting and threshing processes with manual plus thresher, reaper plus
thresher and combine harvester were 222.63kg ha-1, 199.41kg ha-1and 149.87kg
ha-1which were 4.28%, 3.85% and 2.92% of the total yield, respectively. The
minimum amount of waste belonged to reaper plus thresher (0.82%) by providing
42.58 kg ha-1 broken grains and inert material in the produce. The cleaning
efficiency of combine was a bit poorer (98.90%) as compared to other harvesting
and threshing techniques.

Agha
and Siddiqui (2004) studied that Grain losses of wheat (cv. Mehran-89) affected
by threshing timings. The meteorological characteristics were slightly
different during observation dates. The data revealed that grain losses were
considerably affected by threshing timings; increased with late as well as
early threshing. Minimum grain losses were recorded during middle of the day.
Comparison of loss types indicated that the maximum were un-threshed followed
by un-broking grain losses.

Ibupoto
et al., (1991) conducted an experiment to evaluate field grain losses in wheat
variety Sarsabz that were harvested, threshed and winnowed by conventional
method at Malir farm. Data from 30 samples showed that for traditional methods
average grain losses during pre-harvest , harvest and post-harvest stages were
10.8, 29 and 122.9 kg/ha respectively. They observed that post-harvest grain
losses were the highest. Among the post-harvest grain losses bundling losses
were maximum (1.41%) followed by threshing (1.02%), winnowing (0.66%) and
transport (0.12%).

Zaman
et al., (1992) used two combine harvesters with three forward speed levels to
harvest two wheat varieties having three grain moisture levels (26%, 20% and
13%) to monitor the harvesting losses. The analysis showed that Pak 81 is a
better choice regarding losses during harvesting compared with Punjab 85. The
grain damage was lower for Punjab 85. Separation losses were reduced at lower
moisture level but shattering and quality losses increased.

Kumar
et al,. (2017) observed that during harvesting season, often rain and storms
occurs causing considerable damage to standing crops. Rapid harvest facilitates
extra days for land preparation and earlier planting of the next crop. The use
of machines can help to harvest at proper stage of crop maturity, reduce
drudgery and operation time. Crops are harvested after normal maturity with the
objective to take out grain, straw, tubers etc. without much loss. There are
several methods of harvesting and threshing for wheat crop i.e. manual and
mechanical method. Under this comparative study, the effective field capacity
at 16 % moisture content was 0.30 ha/hr at speed of 3 km/hr. The field
efficiency of self-propelled binder was 74, 76.79 %, and 77.90 % at moisture
content 20, 18, 16 % respectively. The shattering losses of self-propelled
reaper binder was 51 kg/ha at 3 km/hr forward speed with 20 % moisture content
and observed that increase forward speed shattering losses was increase. The
grain breakage percentage during experiment of combine harvest at 3.25 km/hr
speed with 20 % moisture content was 0.06 % and observed that grain breakage
percentage was increase with forward speed and moisture content. The unthreshed
grain percentage was 0.66 % at 3.25 km/hr at 20 % level moisture content. The
total grain loss was 1.7 % at 4.05 km/hr forward speed at 20 % moisture
content.

Shamabadi
(2012) studied that each year a significant portion of the country’s wheat
production wasted at different stages of production. One of the most important
stages of product loss, it is Harvest stage. The first step in planning for
waste reduction wheat harvest estimatethe amount of losses and factors are
identified. In this study during combine wheat harvesting in shahrood, 8
combines selected and evaluated. Results showed that, the mean of loss in 3
samples was 16.1%. This amount is out of the acceptable range. The mean of
combine total loss at wheat harvesting stage was 6.88 %. The most amount of
waste belonged to combine harvester head (5.35%). Crop loss of combine end and
natural loss were 1.24 % and 0.49 %, respectively. Harvesting delay and
unadjusted combines are the most causes of crop loss.

Mirasi
et al., (2014) investigated wheat losses during pre-harvest and harvest stages
in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province of Iran in year 2013. Wheat losses at
harvest stages were measured to wheat varieties in 2 levels of Omid and Alvand
were chosen and Combine types in 2 levels: JD 955 and JD 1165 while were
chosen. The data analyzed using and means were compared using SAS Software’s
and Duncan’s Multiple Range Tests were. The results showed that higher amount
of losses were in the Omid variety and JD 955 with totally 6.83 % (307.4 kg
ha-1) that 10.5 % of them attributed on the cleaning, 34 % on Header, 16.5 % on
Drum, 21 % on impurity and 18% broken grain losses. The lowest losses related
to JD 1165 and Alvand variety wit h 3.97 % (178.66 kg ha-1) that 10 % of them
attributed on the cleaning, 38 % on Header, 13 % on Drum , 22 % on impurity and
17% broken grain losses. Also, average pre-harvest losses amount was in all
fields the study 24.5 kg ha-1 that 9.8 % of total losses represent the measured
total losses Alvand 20.5 kg ha-1 3and the variety of Omid 28.5 kg ha-1
respectively.

Bartholomeu
et al., (2016) observed that losses during transportation in the domestic
market account for about 11.8% of the total amount of wheat grain that leaves
the farms. Losses during harvest and storage in cooperatives, which account for
93.2% of total losses, stand out in this context. Transportation operations
account for 6.8% of total losses in the analyzed flow. Based on the results
obtained in this study, strategies are suggested to reduce food losses in
different links of the logistics chain, such as to evidence and quantify the
wheat

losses,
to manage losses and set reduction targets and to give attention to
transportation service levels.

The
crop losses during the process of harvesting, threshing, transportation and
storage of food grains are quite significant. The present study has projected
the extent of losses occurring during post- harvest phase of wheat crop based
on the experience of 120 wheat-growing farmers of various farm-size categories
from Ludhiana and Ferozepur districts of Punjab. The study has observed that
harvesting losses were more for the late harvested crop due to shattering of
the grains, while losses during transportation, handling and rodents attack in
the case of stored grains have been found insignificant. In totality, the
post-harvest losses have been worked out to be 1.84 per cent currently. Earlier
studies had estimated such losses to be 9.3 per cent during 1971and 3.71-3.85
per cent in 1992. Thus, better post-harvest management has resulted in
minimizing post-harvest losses. The study has suggested timely harvesting of
wheat crop and organization of training workshops for control of rodents /
fungus/pests attack to further curtail the losses at field level.

Material and
Method:

Counting of Wheat Grains / m2:

 To count the numbers of shattered grains are
collected from different experimental areas from field of PAROKA Farm at
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, these samples were collected in per
meter square of different varieties of wheat at experimental site. These will
be counted by simple counting method / by hand.

Column counting:

We
will count the stubbles remains in per meter square area after the harvesting
of wheat from the specific areas where we will collect the samples (PAROKA,
UAF)

Calculation of
seed weight:

After
seeding the shattered wheat grains we will put the require stock into weighing
machine for calculate the weight, Example one grain weight (g/1000 seeds).1000
grains = 35 grams if single grains weight is 35mg.

Volume of Seed:

True
density of different grains samples is calculated by dividing the mass (or
weight) of the 35.00 ± 0.05 g by the pycnometer volume (displacement) of the
same grains sample, and is reported in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3).
True densities typically range from 1.24 to 1.39 g/cm3 at “as
is” moistures of about 12 to 15%.

Seed Length and
width:

We
will measured the length of wheat grains and the width of grains by the using
the Vernier Caliper. Length and width of 10 seeds will be measured per sample.

Comparison of
seed:

For
this purpose we will took samples of the same varieties from the stored seed
which is harvested and stored then we will compare these with the samples
collected from the field from PROKA. This comparison is will be done to find
the seed shape, seed color and seed length and width.

Spike comparison:

 For the comparison of spike the spikes will be
compared on the basis of spike shape, length and color.

 

Germination
Test:

 For this study of seed viability these two
experiments will be conducted, 1st one on the sand, we will sow the
seeds on fine sand and give proper environment, 2nd experiment will
be done by using towel paper method. The seeds will germinate and on basis of
germinated seeds we will be able to calculate the seed viability.

Height parameters:

 For this purpose wheat plant height will be
simply measured with the use of meter rod/scale from the different wheat
varieties at the site (PAROKA). The height
will be measured in cm.