The Neolithic Period refers to the last period of the Stone Age. The Neolithic period is notable for its megalithic architecture, the expansion of agricultural practices, and the use of polished stone tools. The term Neolithic is used a lot in connection with agriculture. Agriculture developed at different times in different parts of the world so there is no exact time for the start of the Neolithic. (Neolithic Period)
The Neolithic Revolution often called the Agricultural Revolution started around 10,000 B.C. Stone Age humans in other parts of the world also started to practice agriculture. The civilizations and cities grew out of the innovations of the Neolithic Revolution. The Neolithic Age is sometimes called the New Stone Age. Neolithic humans used stone tools like their earlier ancestors. Many sides of modern civilization can be tracked back to this moment in history when people started living together in communities. The Neolithic period started when a group of humans gave up the nomadic lifestyle completely to start farming. It probably took humans hundreds of years to transition from
a lifestyle of picking wild plants to having a small garden and later having large crop fields. (Neolithic Revolution)
The first agrarian civilizations began in about 3200 BCE. These early farming societies started in Mesopotamia; in Egypt and Nubia; and in the Indus Valley. The community recognizes other ways of livelihood and work habits but emphasizes how important agriculture and farming is. With the development of agriculture, came cities. Farming would bring a lot of food. People started to settle and live near the crops, so they can get some food instead of having to hunt and scavenge for their food. With the extra food, other professions like merchants and potters appeared. The people wanted to feel safe from the outside of the world, but they also wanted to feel safe inside their city they created. Some people began to be a soldier. Someone needed to make rules and lead the city, so kings and priests were made. These cities soon became overpopulated, so civilizations were made because the cities and communities needed to spread out which led to the first civilizations. (Agrarian Civilizations)
Irrigation is the first agricultural technology beyond just farming. Civilizations learned how to use water to help the crops, and how to use large amounts of water. Irrigation allowed the civilization to make more developed crops. Agriculture, Industry and Progress is what makes a human civilization. Catal Huyuk was a multiracial city of about 6,000 people. Mellaart maps out Catal Huyuk-style village sites stretching out over hundreds of miles; the city looks to have been the central place of a big population. At certain times of the year the population looks to have gathered at the city for trade and other services. (Catal Huyak)
The Mesopotamians gave a lot in the field of Mathematics, Astronomy, Writing and Literature. They developed some important concepts in the field of mathematics which are very useful in doing certain math problems. A contribution of the Mesopotamia is in the form of zodiac and the signs. The Mesopotamia also contributed in the field of literature and science. Mesopotamian civilization was thought to have started around 5000 BC but it looks to have grew around 3000 BC. This civilization was one of the most thriving in the world. People enjoyed the production of flax, fishing, and agriculture which became a way of life for them. The rivers worked for their advantage from the start. They had a good agrarian pick up and trade and commerce of the region grew because they transported their goods to other regions. The growth of date palm in the region which was exported as well. Palm date tree was very useful for the Mesopotamians and helped them better the crops and its growth through cross pollination. The society was very well organized. Unlike the Egyptian system the government was not centralized but worked on the state city basis of organization. The civilization thrived because of its modern approach. It is assumed that the civilization vanished because of its wars which were a source of constant disturbance.
Historians gave several reasons for the fall of Mesopotamian Empire. Some say that there was overcrowding which led to pollution along with other reasons like war and changes in the environment. Mesopotamian cities also had pollution problems like the
lack of indoor toilets and a non-effective garbage collection, which led to contaminated water supplies.
Irrigation techniques are also one of the main reasons for the fall of the empire. By 2300 BC, the agricultural economy of the Mesopotamians started to fall apart because the soil could no longer support plants. In 2000 BC, the last dynasty fell and for almost a century the Mesopotamia was just a place of chaos. In 1900 BC, Amorites gained control of the region and centralized the government over several city states. Finally, it was the attack of the Hittites which ended the Old Babylonian Empire in Mesopotamia from 1900 BC to 1600 BC.
Axum Empire – the Axum Empire was one of the biggest markets of northeastern Africa with its good trading and naval power. When traders from Africa went past the Nile River and into Alexandria, the Axum took control of the coast of the Red Sea until the 7th century.
Benin Empire – the Kingdom of Benin started when the Edo people cut down the trees in the West African rain forest. By the 1400’s, the small settlement was made into a powerful kingdom.
Kingdom of Ghana – Ancient Ghana sat on a big gold mine, the kingdom was very rich. With planning, powerful leaders, and a lot of natural resources, Ghana became a big African influence.
Nok Civilization – During their existence from 900 BC – AD 200, the Nok culture made a difficult judicial system several years before the modern judicial systems were created. Using many different classes of courts, they had to deal with things like theft, murder, adultery, and family disputes.
Ancient Carthage – the ancient city-state of Carthage was in modern-day Tunisia. It’s thought out placement and a lot of trade allowed Carthage to become very wealthy. The Carthage people were very skilled in furniture crafting. For the result in this Punic cushions, mattresses, and beds were expensive items.
A city is the basic building block of a civilization. It houses the people. It advances its science, culture, faith and other stats. It also expands its territory and produces everything else that the civilization has. Cities are also in the middle of the technological and cultural development. It is impossible to make it without powerful, well-situated cities.
A city-state is an entity that represents a small nation that does not compete for victory. A City-State cannot build or create new cities and does not compete for victory. Instead, it communicates with all of the civilizations and then has special benefits to civilizations with which it has friendly interactions with.