The article shows the horrible condition
of Kurdish people who suffered a lot after 1919 when Mosul (Kurdish city) came
under Britain. Kurds started loud their voices against British rule in Kurdish
region. They were want independence according to the article 64 of the Treaty
of Sevres which was signed in Paris after the dismemberment of Ottoman Empire.
Many uprisings started in the Kurdistan region for independence. Mullah Mustafa
Barzani established Kurdistan Democratic Party in 1945 with the support of
Soviet Union. Mustafa Barzani fled to Soviet Union after getting defeat. Iraqi
government recognized Kurds national rights in 1958. Iraq relations with Kurds
took serious because of Iraq’s repression. The peace accord was signed among
both parties in 1970. The Peace Agreement failed when government imposes a
draft of the autonomy which would have left the oilfields of Kirkuk under the control
of Iraq but KDP rejected this draft. The Iraq called them rebellion and war
broke out. This regional conflict brought lot of destruction in region. Algair
Accord of 1975 signed between Iran and Iraq which ended Iranian support for
Jalal Talabina who was the former leading member of KDP
declared the establishment of PUK (Patriotic Union of Kurdistan). So the
clashes started between KDP and PUK. KDP were friendly to cooperate with Iran
while PUK were hostile to cooperate but when Iraqi Military killed Jalal
Tallabani’s brother and nieces than both parties had received support from
Iran. Iraqi military Started Al-Anfal campaign in 1988 against Kurds in which
chemical weapons were used to suppressed them. Ten of thousands lost their
lives and Thousands of villages of Kurds were destroyed. Thousands of people
were died in Halabja town due to poison gas attack.
After the Gulf war Coilation forces declared The Safe Haven
for Kurdish. Jalal Talabani and Masoud Barzani started negotiate with Iraq
while the Kurdish Forces took control of Dohok, Arbil and Sulaimanya. Parliamentary
elections were held in Kurdish control area in 1992. Civil war broke out KDP
and PUK in 1994, even KDP asked to Iraqi Government for help to defeat PUK. UN
signed agreement “Oil for food” with Iraq in 1996, after that both parties
resolved their issues through Peace Agreement in 1998 and started cooperation.
Kurdish stance was neutral on Iraq during the US invasion in
Iraq. KDP and PUK took advantage to negotiate on “Transitional Administrative
Law” in which Kurdish language were become one of the two official languages.
After the lot of efforts, at last Kurdish were able to establish self rule in
Kurdistan. Masoud Barzani was the first president of Kurdish region.
After a plenty of sacrifices the condition of Kurds are much
better than before, they have more influence and power but some ordinary Kurds
complain about bad water storage, electricity and corruption. Another major conflict among Iraq and Kurds
is Petroleum rich Kirkuk is still unresolved. It has significance due to the
oil richness; therefore it is important for Iraq and Kurdistan. It is the
source of oil therefore Kurds always fight for Kirkuk.