SUSTAINBLE CONSTRUCION AND SOCIAL ASPECT Kashif Inayat BS Industrial Engineering University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

SUSTAINBLE CONSTRUCION AND SOCIAL ASPECT
Kashif Inayat
BS Industrial Engineering University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan
[email protected]
Irfan Ullah
BS Industrial Engineering University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan
[email protected]
Sikandar Bilal Khattak
Assistant Professor in Department of Industrial Engineering University of Engineering and Technology (UET), Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan
Iftikhar Hussain
Professor in Department of Industrial Engineering University of Engineering and Technology (UET), Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan
[email protected]
Abstract
Construction industry is one of the important sector to assess a country development. Pakistan is fast urbanizing and the infrastructure development both in urban and rural areas is on the high. Construction sector is interlinked with numerous services and manufacturing sectors. Moreover, construction environment is labor intensive. The community and society is very much strangled into construction sector. Sustainable construction considers the social aspect as well. So, a systematic study to assess the social aspect of sustainable construction needs to be carried out. This paper will focus on the analyzing the social factors involved in sustainable construction. The data will be collected via questionnaire and will be analyzed via Relative Importance Index.

INTRODUCTION
There is no universal definition to sustainability but strong sustainability minimizes the possibility of replacing natural resources with artificial things ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Pearce</Author><Year>1994</Year><RecNum>880</RecNum><DisplayText>(Pearce, Atkinson et al. 1994, Dresner 2008)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>880</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”arzvxfr0iftaaretxty5errt0x00avwr5xfx” timestamp=”1508665752″>880</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Pearce, David W</author><author>Atkinson, Giles D</author><author>Dubourg, W Richard</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The economics of sustainable development</title><secondary-title>Annual review of energy and the environment</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Annual review of energy and the environment</full-title></periodical><pages>457-474</pages><volume>19</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>1994</year></dates><isbn>1056-3466</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Dresner</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>881</RecNum><record><rec-number>881</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”arzvxfr0iftaaretxty5errt0x00avwr5xfx” timestamp=”1508665815″>881</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dresner, Simon</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The principles of sustainability</title></titles><dates><year>2008</year></dates><publisher>Earthscan</publisher><isbn>1844077063</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Pearce, Atkinson et al. 1994, Dresner 2008). Its means that to utilize the resources in such a way that the current era obtained their benefits without sacrificing the needs of future era. This research analyzed only social aspect of sustainability that affect the construction projects in Pakistan. To understand the importance of sustainability in construction industry would help to find a path towards a common understanding of the issue, to reach a point from which obtained logically a valid result concerning the relative advantages of different method to sustainability and to sustainable construction itself ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Chong</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>640</RecNum><DisplayText>Chong, Kumar et al. (2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>640</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”arzvxfr0iftaaretxty5errt0x00avwr5xfx” timestamp=”1508525958″>640</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chong, Wai Kiong</author><author>Kumar, Sanat</author><author>Haas, Carl T</author><author>Beheiry, Salwa M</author><author>Coplen, Lonnie</author><author>Oey, Marvin</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Understanding and interpreting baseline perceptions of sustainability in construction among civil engineers in the United States</title><secondary-title>Journal of management in engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Management in Engineering</full-title></periodical><pages>143-154</pages><volume>25</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2009</year></dates><isbn>0742-597X</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Chong, Kumar et al. (2009).

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Sustainable development is “development, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>WCED</Author><Year>1987</Year><RecNum>887</RecNum><DisplayText>(WCED 1987)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>887</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”arzvxfr0iftaaretxty5errt0x00avwr5xfx” timestamp=”1508681183″>887</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>WCED, UNCED</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Our common future</title><secondary-title>World Commission on Environment and DevelopmentOxford University Press</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>World Commission on Environment and DevelopmentOxford University Press</full-title></periodical><dates><year>1987</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(WCED 1987). The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resources continues to meet human needs without affecting moral and sustainability of natural system. Sustainable development can be classified as development that fulfills the needs of the current era without compromising the needs of the future era. However, only design considerations and on site management cannot achieve sustainable development ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ding</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>23</RecNum><DisplayText>(Ding 2008)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>23</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1520613299″>23</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ding, Grace KC</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Sustainable construction—The role of environmental assessment tools</title><secondary-title>Journal of environmental management</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of environmental management</full-title></periodical><pages>451-464</pages><volume>86</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>0301-4797</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Ding 2008). sustainable construction is not green or environment friendly construction only ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gunatilake</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>471</RecNum><DisplayText>(Gunatilake 2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>471</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”arzvxfr0iftaaretxty5errt0x00avwr5xfx” timestamp=”1503211771″>471</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Thesis”>32</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sachie Gunatilake</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Uptake and Implementation of Sustainable Construction: Transforming Policy into Practice</title><secondary-title>School of Built and Natural Envrionment</secondary-title></titles><pages>321</pages><volume>Ph.D</volume><dates><year>2013</year></dates><pub-location>United Kingdom (UK)</pub-location><publisher>University of Central Lanchashire</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gunatilake 2013). The sustainability no longer consider only the sustainability of environmental aspects, but also consider the economic and social aspects of sustainability ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Dempsey</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>24</RecNum><DisplayText>(Dempsey, Bramley et al. 2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>24</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1520613576″>24</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Dempsey, Nicola</author><author>Bramley, Glen</author><author>Power, Sinéad</author><author>Brown, Caroline</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The social dimension of sustainable development: Defining urban social sustainability</title><secondary-title>Sustainable development</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Sustainable development</full-title></periodical><pages>289-300</pages><volume>19</volume><number>5</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>1099-1719</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Dempsey, Bramley et al. 2011). The sustainable development is forward-looking. It is a continuous mission for future development of human society. A truly sustainable society is one that make initiations toward development in sustainable ways ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Robin</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>32</RecNum><DisplayText>Robin and Poon (2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>32</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1522174267″>32</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Robin, CP Yip</author><author>Poon, CS</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cultural shift towards sustainability in the construction industry of Hong Kong</title><secondary-title>Journal of environmental management</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of environmental management</full-title></periodical><pages>3616-3628</pages><volume>90</volume><number>11</number><dates><year>2009</year></dates><isbn>0301-4797</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Robin and Poon (2009).

Sustainable Construction is generally discussing the importance of sustainable development in the construction industry. The industry is defined as all who produce, develop, plan, design, build, alter or maintain the built environment and includes building materials manufacturers and suppliers as well as clients and end use occupiers ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Wilkinson</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>1025</RecNum><DisplayText>(Wilkinson, Sayce et al. 2015)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1025</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”arzvxfr0iftaaretxty5errt0x00avwr5xfx” timestamp=”1522418766″>1025</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wilkinson, S.J.</author><author>Sayce, S.L.</author><author>Christensen, P.H.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Developing Property Sustainably</title></titles><dates><year>2015</year></dates><publisher>Taylor &amp; Francis</publisher><isbn>9781317655459</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=L1fLCQAAQBAJ</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Wilkinson, Sayce et al. 2015) Clients and end use occupiers are also the important participants to deliver the sustainable development. Sustainable development is a way for ensuring the better life for the present and for the coming generation. Mankind used building and structure for their social needs as a shelter, to meet economic needs for investment and to satisfy corporate objectives ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Abidin</Author><Year>2009</Year><RecNum>25</RecNum><DisplayText>(Abidin 2009)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>25</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1520614362″>25</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Abidin, Nazirah Zainul</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Sustainable construction in Malaysia–Developers’ awareness;/title;;secondary-title;World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology;/secondary-title;;/titles;;pages;807-814;/pages;;volume;53;/volume;;dates;;year;2009;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;(Abidin 2009). With the increasing requirements for resource efficiency and climate change adaptation in the construction industry, there is a need for contractor to implement sustainable practices ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Tan;/Author;;Year;2011;/Year;;RecNum;26;/RecNum;;DisplayText;(Tan, Shen et al. 2011);/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;26;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1520614782″;26;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Tan, Yongtao;/author;;author;Shen, Liyin;/author;;author;Yao, Hong;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Sustainable construction practice and contractors’ competitiveness: A preliminary study</title><secondary-title>Habitat international</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Habitat international</full-title></periodical><pages>225-230</pages><volume>35</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>0197-3975</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Tan, Shen et al. 2011). Sustainable assessment methods for building projects have a major role to play in introducing sustainability values ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Kaatz</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>33</RecNum><DisplayText>Kaatz, Root et al. (2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>33</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1522176044″>33</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kaatz, Ewelina</author><author>Root, David S</author><author>Bowen, Paul A</author><author>Hill, Richard C</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Advancing key outcomes of sustainability building assessment</title><secondary-title>Building Research &amp; Information</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Building Research &amp; Information</full-title></periodical><pages>308-320</pages><volume>34</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2006</year></dates><isbn>0961-3218</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Kaatz, Root et al. (2006).

3. LITERATURE REVIEW
Sustainable performance is an important factor when observing the feasibility of a construction project in terms of its performance. Three major factors are used to examine Project Sustainable Performance (PSP). The sustainability of economic development (E), the sustainability of social development (S), and the sustainability of environmental development (En) ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Shen</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>3</RecNum><DisplayText>Shen, Wu et al. (2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1520588146″>3</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Shen, LY</author><author>Wu, YZ</author><author>Chan, EHW</author><author>Hao, JL</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Application of system dynamics for assessment of sustainable performance of construction projects</title><secondary-title>Journal of Zhejiang University-Science A</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Zhejiang University-Science A</full-title></periodical><pages>339-349</pages><volume>6</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><isbn>1673-565X</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Shen, Wu et al. (2005). Technology can contribute to sustainable development (improving living conditions but initially the applicability of Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) was discussed ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Lehmann</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>27</RecNum><DisplayText>Lehmann, Zschieschang et al. (2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>27</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1521900556″>27</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Lehmann, Annekatrin</author><author>Zschieschang, Eva</author><author>Traverso, Marzia</author><author>Finkbeiner, Matthias</author><author>Schebek, Liselotte</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Social aspects for sustainability assessment of technologies—challenges for social life cycle assessment (SLCA)</title><secondary-title>The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment</full-title></periodical><pages>1581-1592</pages><volume>18</volume><number>8</number><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>0948-3349</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Lehmann, Zschieschang et al. (2013). The concept of sustainability is an approach that show a method/procedure toward a sustainable society ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Komiyama</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>5</RecNum><DisplayText>Komiyama and Takeuchi (2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>5</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1520588171″>5</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Generic”>13</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Komiyama, Hiroshi</author><author>Takeuchi, Kazuhiko</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Sustainability science: building a new discipline</title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><publisher>Springer</publisher><isbn>1862-4065</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Komiyama and Takeuchi (2006). From two decades in the concept of sustainable development the aspects of life were ignored although it contained the social mandate clearly. After the failure of this approach there is need to find out new ways and method to reach the social sustainability ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Vallance</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>28</RecNum><DisplayText>Vallance, Perkins et al. (2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>28</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1521903079″>28</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vallance, Suzanne</author><author>Perkins, Harvey C</author><author>Dixon, Jennifer E</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>What is social sustainability? A clarification of concepts</title><secondary-title>Geoforum</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Geoforum</full-title></periodical><pages>342-348</pages><volume>42</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>0016-7185</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Vallance, Perkins et al. (2011). Satisfaction of requirements, conservation of resources & surrounding, creation of harmonious living environment, provisions facilitating daily life operations, form of development and availability of open spaces were believed to be the significant underlying factors for enhancing social sustainability of local urban renewal projects ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Chan</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>12</RecNum><DisplayText>Chan and Lee (2008)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>12</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1520588235″>12</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chan, Edwin</author><author>Lee, Grace KL</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Critical factors for improving social sustainability of urban renewal projects</title><secondary-title>Social Indicators Research</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Social Indicators Research</full-title></periodical><pages>243-256</pages><volume>85</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>0303-8300</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Chan and Lee (2008). It is most important to consider the environmental aspects in the project it should be clearly shared with the project participants and human society ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Shen</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>13</RecNum><DisplayText>Shen, Lu et al. (2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>13</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1520588245″>13</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Shen, Li-Yin</author><author>Lu, Wei-Sheng</author><author>Yao, Hong</author><author>Wu, De-Hua</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A computer-based scoring method for measuring the environmental performance of construction activities</title><secondary-title>Automation in Construction</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Automation in Construction</full-title></periodical><pages>297-309</pages><volume>14</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><isbn>0926-5805</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Shen, Lu et al. (2005). In these days the human resources are very important factor the increase the efficiency of any organization in productivity, and this makes it very much important in industry market and competition. With the effective and optimum usage of it, all the advantages supplied by the productivity growth can be obtained ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Kazaz</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>16</RecNum><DisplayText>Kazaz, Manisali et al. (2008)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>16</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1520588274″>16</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kazaz, Aynur</author><author>Manisali, Ekrem</author><author>Ulubeyli, Serdar</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Effect of basic motivational factors on construction workforce productivity in Turkey</title><secondary-title>Journal of civil engineering and management</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Civil engineering and Management</full-title></periodical><pages>95-106</pages><volume>14</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>1392-3730</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Kazaz, Manisali et al. (2008). Sustainable construction is one of the most critical important method and procedure to reach to the target level of sustainable development, taking into account environmental, socioeconomic and cultural issues ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Shafii</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>19</RecNum><DisplayText>Shafii, Ali et al. (2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>19</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1520588298″>19</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”>10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Shafii, Faridah</author><author>Ali, Zainab Arman</author><author>Othman, Mohamed Zahry</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Achieving sustainable construction in the developing countries of Southeast Asia</title><secondary-title>Proceedings of the 6th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia</secondary-title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Shafii, Ali et al. (2006). The construction industry has massive impacts on the society, environment, economy. Social sustainability seems missing from the research radar ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Zuo</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>30</RecNum><DisplayText>Zuo, Jin et al. (2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>30</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1521904101″>30</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Zuo, Jian</author><author>Jin, Xiao-Hua</author><author>Flynn, Lisa</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Social sustainability in construction–an explorative study</title><secondary-title>International Journal of Construction Management</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Construction Management</full-title></periodical><pages>51-63</pages><volume>12</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>1562-3599</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Zuo, Jin et al. (2012). In the construction industry, corporate social responsibility is increasingly valued as one factor that will contribute to business sustainable development ( ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Zhao</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>29</RecNum><DisplayText>Zhao, Zhao et al. (2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>29</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”dad9z290mt92vzeaxwb5ptvax2wax05zxpfd” timestamp=”1521903529″>29</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Zhao, Zhen-Yu</author><author>Zhao, Xiao-Jing</author><author>Davidson, Kathryn</author><author>Zuo, Jian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A corporate social responsibility indicator system for construction enterprises</title><secondary-title>Journal of cleaner production</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Cleaner Production</full-title></periodical><pages>277-289</pages><volume>29</volume><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>0959-6526</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Zhao, Zhao et al. (2012).

The literature review concludes that although a number of research articles exists for sustainable construction but no one have specifically targeted the social aspect. This paper targets the social aspects within a construction environment.
4. AREA RESEARCH
The area research was conducted to determine the opinions of experts on social aspects of sustainability in construction industry of Pakistan. The questionnaire was developed based on a combination of literature review and discussion/interviews involving project managers, engineers and contractors. Total of 18 factors were finalized for the research and distributed through mail, email and by hand.

5. METHODOLOGY
Preliminary literature review helped in finalizing the research area where as a comprehensive literature review helped in identifying the important social factors. A questionnaire was developed based on social factors in relation with project performance parameter. Then the questionnaire was investigated in order to improve and modify the questionnaire. Questionnaire was discussed with experts for validation and distributed to different organization by email, mail and personally and collected. The questionnaire was shared with approximately 70 experts and 45 to 50 responses were received. Among those responses 30 responses were complete. Finally, the analysis was done by using a statistical tool “Relative Importance Index” (RII). The methodology flow chart is shown in Fig.5.1..409575110490Area Selection
00Area Selection

532447526098522574242800351171575257175381000057150Questionnaire Distribution
00Questionnaire Distribution

409575215900Literature Review
00Literature Review
461010020574000
1181100270510381000080010Questionnaire Collection
00Questionnaire Collection

409575229235Problem Statement
00Problem Statement
461962527622500
11620502844803810000173355No. of Respondents?30
00No. of Respondents?30

409575238760Factors Identification
00Factors Identification
No
409575285115Social Factors
00Social Factors
1181100469900
3962400315595Relative Importance Index
00Relative Importance Index
467677512700 Yes
409575255905Questionnaire Development
00Questionnaire Development
118110031750
3708400314960Results, Discussions and documentation
00Results, Discussions and documentation
468630090805085725127635
85725340360Questionnaire
Validation
00Questionnaire
Validation
1162050355600
No Yes
Figure 5.1
6. DATA ANALYSIS
The data analysis was done on Relative Importance Index (RII) to determine the relative priorities of the factors. Relative importance index is computed by using the following formula ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gündüz</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>1023</RecNum><DisplayText>(Gündüz, Nielsen et al. 2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1023</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”arzvxfr0iftaaretxty5errt0x00avwr5xfx” timestamp=”1522418272″>1023</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gündüz, Murat</author><author>Nielsen, Yasemin</author><author>Özdemir, Mustafa</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Quantification of delay factors using the relative importance index method for construction projects in Turkey</title><secondary-title>Journal of Management in Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Management in Engineering</full-title></periodical><pages>133-139</pages><volume>29</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>0742-597X</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gündüz, Nielsen et al. 2012).

RII ==w/A*N (0?index?1)…………………6.1a
Where w is the weight given by the respondent to each factor ranging from 1 to 5, A is the highest weight (in this case is 5) and N is the total number of respondents. The factors were then arranged according to their descending order of RII values and were duly ranked. The highest RII indicates the most critical and important factor with rank 1 and the next indicates the second-most critical factor with rank 2 and so on. The collected data is represented with the help of a spider diagram as shown in Fig 6.1.

Figure 6.1 Collected Data
The data was collected on likert scale of 1-5, so the highest weightage in every row was five (5). The total number of respondents overall and for each factor is thirty (30). After the highest weightage and number of respondents was identified the overall data was then inter into the following formula,
RII ==w/A*N (0?index?1)……………….6.3
The collected data was then subjected to RII analysis as shown in Table 6.1. The first column in Table 6.1 represents the social factors, the second column represents the total weight of the respective factor given by all the respondents. The third column and fourth column represents the highest weight and number of respondents respectively. The fifth column shows the RII score whereas the second last columns shows the RII percentage score. The last columns shows the rank of the factor.
Table 6.1 Relative Importance Index (RII) Analysis
Factors Weightage Highest Weight No. of Respondents RII Percentage Overall Ranking
Clean Water 122 5 30 0.8133 81.33 1
Team Work 118 5 30 0.7867 78.67 2
Local Resources 117 5 30 0.7800 78.00 3
Natural Disasters (Earthquake and Floods etc.) 114 5 30 0.7600 76.00 4
Stake Holders 113 5 30 0.7533 75.33 5
Competitor 111 5 30 0.7400 74.00 6
Customer Privacy 109 5 30 0.7267 72.67 7
Local Culture and Heritage 108 5 30 0.7200 72.00 8
Community Support 107 5 30 0.7133 71.33 9
Local Sub Contractor and Workers 106 5 30 0.7067 70.67 10
Politics (Local, National and International) 106 5 30 0.7067 70.67 11
Innovation 103 5 30 0.6867 68.67 12
Latest Research 101 5 30 0.6733 67.33 13
Safety Aspects 101 5 30 0.6733 67.33 14
Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) 97 5 30 0.6467 64.67 15
Social Welfare 96 5 30 0.6400 64.00 16
Special People (Handicapped) 86 5 30 0.5733 57.33 17
Sharing Problems with Universities 77 5 30 0.5133 51.33 18
7. RESULT and DISCUSSION
RII is a method which categorizes the factors on the basis of their importance. The result presents several factors that can affect social sustainability of construction in Pakistan. The last column of Tabel 6.1 shows the rank of factors. The same ranks could be visualized in Fig 7.1.

As shown in Fig 7.1, the top five relatively important factors are clean water with RII equal to 0.8133, team work with RII equal to 0.7867, local resources with RII equal to 0.7800, natural disaster with RII equal to 0.7600 and stake holder with RII equal to 0.7533. These factors show the highest coefficient index of RII value. Factors such as social welfare, special people and sharing problems with universities are ranked on the lower side. The local workers, local community, local culture and heritage are moderately important.
The results implores that the construction practioners are looking after the clean water, team, and local resources in most of their projects where as social welfare and special people are neglected in most of their projects. The problems are hardly shared with the universities.
If a benchmark of 70 percent is set then Table 8.1 shows the factors which has scored more than 70 percent.
Table 7.1 Significant Factors
Factors Percentage Overall Ranking
Clean Water 81.33 1
Team Work 78.67 2
Local Resources 78.00 3
Natural Disasters (Earthquake and Floods etc.) 76.00 4
Stake Holders 75.33 5
Competitor 74.00 6
Customer Privacy 72.67 7
Local Culture and Heritage 72.00 8
Community Support 71.33 9
Local Sub Contractor and Workers 70.67 10
Politics (Local, National and International) 70.67 11
8. CONCLUSION
Construction industry is very much integrated within a society. Social aspect within the construction environment is of prime significance. The practioners are more interested in safeguarding their own interests and reducing costs. The investment on the local community and social fabric is rarely seen in construction projects.
Both the government and society has to update the rules to safeguard the social aspects with the construction environment.
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Yang, Shen et al. 2009, Yang, Shen et al. 2011)(Yang, Shen et al. 2009, Yang, Shen et al. 2011)(Yang, Shen et al. 2009, Yang, Shen et al. 2011)(Yang, Shen et al. 2009, Yang, Shen et al. 2011)(Yang, Shen et al. 2009, Yang, Shen et al. 2011)(Yang, Shen et al. 2009, Yang, Shen et al. 2011)(Yang, Shen et al. 2009, Yang, Shen et al. 2011)(Yang, Shen et al. 2009, Yang, Shen et al. 2011)(Yang, Shen et al. 2009, Yang, Shen et al. 2011)(Yang, Shen et al. 2009, Yang, Shen et al. 2011)