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Submission Front Sheet
Assignment Code:DET19AB3
Program: Pearson BTEC Level 5 Diploma in Education and Training
Unit Title: Theories, Principles and Models in E & T (Unit 3)
Unit reference number: A/505/0818
QCF Level: 5 Credit Value: 20
Module Tutor: Tabassum Ferdous
Email: [email protected]
Registration Number: 23585
-9525330835Learner’s statement of authenticity
Student’s Name: __EDITH NKEMDILIM_____________________
Student’s ID Number: _23585__________________
I certify that the work submitted for this assignment is my own. Where the work of others has been used to support my work then credit has been acknowledged. I have identified and acknowledged all sources used in this assignment and have referenced according to the Harvard referencing system. I have read and understood the Plagiarism and Collusion section provided with the assignment brief and understood the consequences of plagiarising.

Signature: ___________________Date: ___/___/_____

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00Learner’s statement of authenticity
Student’s Name: __EDITH NKEMDILIM_____________________
Student’s ID Number: _23585__________________
I certify that the work submitted for this assignment is my own. Where the work of others has been used to support my work then credit has been acknowledged. I have identified and acknowledged all sources used in this assignment and have referenced according to the Harvard referencing system. I have read and understood the Plagiarism and Collusion section provided with the assignment brief and understood the consequences of plagiarising.

Signature: ___________________Date: ___/___/_____

Date:29th January 2018

2066290350520 7,000 words
00 7,000 words
48583852857500Is this a First Submission or Second Submission ?
Word Count (Approx.)
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc505031471 h 3THEORY. PAGEREF _Toc505031472 h 3MODELS. PAGEREF _Toc505031473 h 3PRINCIPLE: PAGEREF _Toc505031474 h 3LEARNNG THEORIES. PAGEREF _Toc505031475 h 4Task 1 PAGEREF _Toc505031476 h 4Analyse theories, principles model of learning and models of learning preferences. PAGEREF _Toc505031477 h 4Behaviourism PAGEREF _Toc505031478 h 4How I can apply this to my teaching: PAGEREF _Toc505031479 h 5Critics PAGEREF _Toc505031480 h 5Cognitivism PAGEREF _Toc505031481 h 6How I can apply this to my teaching: PAGEREF _Toc505031482 h 6Critics PAGEREF _Toc505031483 h 7Humanist PAGEREF _Toc505031484 h 7How I can apply this: PAGEREF _Toc505031485 h 8Learning Preferences model PAGEREF _Toc505031486 h 8Fleming’s VAK Model PAGEREF _Toc505031487 h 8The Honey-Mumford Model PAGEREF _Toc505031488 h 9The Kolb Learning Model PAGEREF _Toc505031489 h 9Diverges: PAGEREF _Toc505031490 h 9Converges: PAGEREF _Toc505031491 h 9Accommodators: PAGEREF _Toc505031492 h 10Assimilators PAGEREF _Toc505031493 h 10Task 1b PAGEREF _Toc505031494 h 10Ways to Apply Theories, Principles, and Models to Teaching, Assessment, and Learning PAGEREF _Toc505031495 h 10Task 1C PAGEREF _Toc505031496 h 13How the Identification and Consideration of the Individual Learning Preferences of Learners Enhance Inclusive and Comprehensive Learning, Assessment, and Teaching. PAGEREF _Toc505031497 h 13Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc505031498 h 14
INTRODUCTIONThis assignment will tell us the meaning of theories, principles, models of learning and learning preferences which will help me to analyse some of these theories, principles and models through research and this assignment will also show how learners preferences should be incorporated to ensure inclusive learning and this assignment will also show how learners preferences should be considered as per inclusive learning and teaching.

THEORY.This give an overall explanation for an observation made in the past and it also predicts and explain behaviour however, a theory cannot be well-known beyond all doubt though it can be modified which means that theory can never be thrown out completely even though, a theory may be generally accepted at a time and later invalidated.

CITATION AGr12 l 2057 (A, Gravells, 2012).

MODELS.This is said to be a mental picture that supports to understand some things we cannot see or experience at once. (A. Gravells,2012).

PRINCIPLE: A principle is therefore, a value, belief or ethics connecting to something you do for example, which time a teacher walk into a classroom, the teacher must have a set of values and beliefs that the teacher inspires to achieve and this maybe little things like stating aim and outcome or giving feedbacks and praise to learner after completion of class activities. CITATION Wil09 l 2057 (Wilson, 2009)LEARNNG THEORIES.
This is an organised set of principles that explains the way people acquire, retain and recall information. By reading and knowing different learning theories helps us to know how learning occurs and these principles can be used in getting the techniques and strategies to promote learning.

Task 1Analyse theories, principles model of learning and models of learning preferences.according to Wilson, L (2014), has shown that there are three main schools of theory and there are:
Behaviourism is founded on principle of stimuli and response. In this theory, individual respond to stimuli. That is things that individual seen and done around them. It is also, a teacher-led activity that means that teacher is always in charge of what is to be done. However, the learners need to be directed in behaviourism and if the individual wants it, a reward or a punishment which will make the learner to act accordingly that will result in a noticeable change in behaviour. According Pavlov (1849-1936), repetitively being shown a subject so as to learn about it. This is the mind’s black box sense which responds to stimulus that can be observed quantitatively by ignoring the chances of thought processes that occurs in mind. Behaviourism is the main work of Pavlov supported by Skinner, Watson and Thorndike. The stimulus response theory used on a dog was how a bell was ringing for couple of times before the food, initially, the dog did not salivate but when the dog noticed the repetitiveness of the bell and the pairing of the food then it began to salivate each time the dog hears the bell rang showing recognition however, the issue here is that this is a problem solving and how a behaviourist could think logically when following responses that means it is open to stereotyping. CITATION Pet14 l 2057 (Petty, 2014)How I can apply this to my teaching:How I can apply this to my teaching practice, I will spell out the rules and regulations concerning these together with the penalty should it be encroached. I will tell my learners what are the expected outcome of the lesson, the rewards for achieving and penalty for failing but I will emphasis more on rewards by telling them what they will expect as a reward should answer all their questions correctly then they can earn a sticker or the learner should be allow to go on a trip to the London eye and at same time, I will explain also, the terms of punishment if the learner was unable to finish his or her work on time then, the learner will not be allow to go on break early until he finishes the work. CITATION Bat16 l 2057 (Bates, 2016).

Critics has it that according to Watson’s theory make, that the result of stimuli-response will not last long if the stimuli is not repetitive.
CognitivismCognitivism majors in the thought process whereby learners process all the incoming information and not responding to the environmental stimulus. The cognitive theorists like Jean Piaget contend that learning happens through processing information internally. Unlike behaviourism theory that is in the external environment, cognitivism depends on the internal process. The approach focuses on the happenings in the head of the leaners such as the mental processes. Teachers only use the behaviour changes as an indicator of the processes in the mind of the learner. changing old ideas and getting new insights. Some of the applications or examples of cognitivism include linking concepts, providing structure, solving problems, analogies, discussions, and classifying information Learning is a knowledge change that occurs in the memory. It involves experiences reorganisation through. To instruct somebody is a question of getting the person to commit results to mind. Somewhat, it is to teach a person on how to participate in the process that will make the establishment of knowledge possible.

How I can apply this to my teaching:As a teacher, a subject is taught not to produce little living libraries on the subject rather, is to get the learners to think mathematically for themselves, to reflect on matters as historians are going doing to participate in the process of knowledge getting. Awareness is a process and not a product. The path of education in relation to a theory of instruction (1966) the issues here could be that some learners may not have the knowledge to start with, however is this to say that the learner should not be given the opportunity to learn.

Critics has it that Cognitivist theory grew out of dissatisfaction with the behaviourist approach, which its staunchest critics thought was too focused on accomplishing a particular outcome without developing potential.

This happens to be the most current study and it differs from other ones as it is relating directly to the varied behaviours of human learning. Humanist recognises the complexity and uncertainty in life. Humanist theories say that people need to look for the meanings and need personal goals so as to develop autonomy thereby keeping the learner at the centre of learning. This theory focuses on motivation hence many of these theory to teacher are well known to teachers for their work on motivation theory and in humanist, teachers facilitate learning in a conductive learning environment. According to Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) development are in various phases as everyone need to have their basic needs met before moving on to the next learning stage.
Humanists believe that learning should be personalized and child centred. Learners should be encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning and agree their own goals. ‘Teachers are encouraged to help each learner choose what knowledge and skills they want to learn, negotiating a unique ‘learning contract’ or ‘action plan’ for each individual’ (Petty 2004). After each assessment they receive feedback and the assessment plan and Individual learning plan are updated. Humanists feel that for learning to take place the learner/child needs to feel good about them self, be in a place of self-actualization. According to Rogers (1902-1987) who said that ‘the job of the teacher is to generate the conditions and environment for students to develop their own self-concept’ thus promoting experiential learning (Reece and Walker 2009).

How I can apply this: It is part of my role as a teacher to provide a positive, safe environment for my learners, where they feel that they can learn and want to learn hence I must ensure that learners have a conducive and safe environment for their learning. I will have to encourage the use of simulation and role play as this boost socialization and learner interaction. By using group or paired activities the less confident or slow learners will be inspired to take part and get involved knowing that I can nominate or call one of them to give out the information at the end of the teaching.
Learning Preferences modelFleming’s VAK ModelFleming’s VAK model involves three types of learning preferences that include visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic. In the visual category, learners prefer learning through observation or seeing. They use pictures to aid in thinking such as diagrams, handouts, and slides. Auditory preference involves learners preferring to learn by listening either to lectures, tapes, or discussions. Finally, kinaesthetic learners find it interesting to learn by experiencing such as touching and moving. Next, learners can apply the Kolb Model to learn year 2 mathematics through converging and diverting. The converging element would involve learners focusing on technical tasks and solving challenging concepts such as division and multiplication. On the hand, the diverging learners would learn two dimensional and three dimensional by observing and brainstorming.
The Honey-Mumford ModelThe learning preferences or styles of this model include activist, reflector, and theorist. Activist learners like challenges from new experiences and activities as they learn a lot. They solve problems and prefer discussions. Reflectors are learners who prefer learning through watching and thinking about the observed things. They make decisions based on facts. Finally, in the theorist category, the learners learn step-by-step, and they synthesize situations.
The Kolb Learning ModelThe Kolb learning model base on four core styles that include My learners need to know the importance of initial and diagnostic testing from this theory Kolb was able to identify four specific learning styles.
these are learners who like to think about what they have experienced and ask why and enjoy watching others and collecting a wide range of information.
these are those learners who like to think about things and ask how things work. They enjoy trying out their own theories to see if they work. They work most effectively solo being methodical and practical and adjusting their theories using facts to ensure efficiency.
Accommodators: these are learners who enjoy more hands-on experiences, and practical learning rather than exposition and rote learning. They work well solo and like to experiment to test their theories.

Assimilators: are thinkers and they like things to be structured and organized. They are ‘serious’ learners who prefer lectures and reading materials to hands on or activities. The Humanist theories were developed to include theories of motivation and communication. Motivation/Communication
Task 1bWays to Apply Theories, Principles, and Models to Teaching, Assessment, and LearningEducation is the central focus in our current society as the economy develops, education becomes of better importance and our learner’s future is highly dependent on their educational opportunities. As many theorists have proven, there is no specified of teaching that targets the whole audience rather, every child has their own distinctive learning style that work for them. Any teacher that takes on the responsibility of teaching must familiarize themselves with the various approaches so they observe the “No child left behind” act and accomplish their duty as a teacher.
Educational theories are vital to our teaching practices. They help us to reflect on the methods and styles we use and recognise our achievements and our failures. They help us to focus on our learners and use strategies to identify their individual learning styles so that we can ensure our schemes of work and lesson plans acknowledge and accommodate those styles so learners have access to a varied and learner centred educational programme. Throughout this assignment I have noticed that my own teaching style incorporates mostly the Humanist, Cognitivist and Behaviourist theories.
An efficient application of theories, models, and principles are significant as they promote faster and effective assessment, learning, and teaching of students especially children age 6/7years in Kg 1. Core subjects such as mathematics require comprehensive teaching and assessment to promote comprehensive learning and this is only possible through the utilization of theories, according to Abraham Maslow (1808 – 1970) who says that progression to the level will not be possible until the lower level of needs is met. Theories can be applied to learning, assessment, and teaching of Kg stage 1 mathematics among 6-7-year olds in various ways.
First, the behaviourism theory is important in the learning and teaching of year 2 mathematics. The behaviourism theory can be applied to learning mathematics through repetitive practice. Repetitive practice will help children to learn vital concepts. For instance, by learning how to count symbols and numbers repetitively, children will familiarise with the practice, which will make them gain a new behaviour of counting numbers automatically without being told.
Second, cognitivism theory can be applied to teaching Kg stage 1 mathematics through focusing on the mind of children. A teacher ensures that the mental wellbeing of the child is in good state to process the mathematical information and data without any challenge. Children store what they have learned in their memory. Cognitivism helps in solving mathematical problems, for example, during teaching of addition and subtraction, as a teacher I will ensure that the cognitive of the 6/ 7-year-old learners is in line with the concepts of addition and subtraction. Mathematics being a technical subject involving statistics, the cognitivism theory makes a learner think broadly when analysing the numbers or shapes. Further, constructivism theory helps year 6/7 children to learn mathematics through constructing new concepts and ideas that relate to the field. The theory dictates that people use their past experiences to create new ideas. Therefore, during the assessment of Kg stage 1 mathematics, a child will use the knowledge he had learned previously to provide valid answers during assessment. For example, in mathematical sequences, a child would use the previous knowledge to determine the value in a sequence, which promote good grades.
Significantly, the models of learning preferences are also essential in the learning, teaching, and assessment of Kg stage 1 mathematics. To begin with Fleming’s VAK model, the model can be applied to teaching of mathematics through its visual aspect as I can use visuals such as diagram and shapes when teaching children mathematics to enable quicker understanding and support. More so, as a teacher, I can use the model by creating discussions and video clips that will help 6/7-year-old children to learn various mathematical concepts such as classifying and sorting, Then, learners can apply the Honey-Mumford Model by preferring the challenges that the mathematical problems create. For example, through preferring or accepting the mathematical problems such as multiplication, fractions, and comparison; children will get a full grasp and understanding of the concepts. Finally, the principle that emotion is an integral component of learning is important in the teaching and learning of year 2 mathematics. Teachers use this principle to create a strong bond with the students. Since mathematics is a technical subject, children can only pass if they relate well to the teachers emotionally.
Task 1CHow the Identification and Consideration of the Individual Learning Preferences of Learners Enhance Inclusive and Comprehensive Learning, Assessment, and Teaching.Learning preferences of a learner is a significant element that every instructor or tutor must identify and take into account during teaching and assessment as it determines the success of the practice. The identification and consideration of learners learning preferences promote inclusive teaching and learning as it enables a teacher to know what the learners prefer and the approaches that they don’t like. Teaching and assessing a learner based on learners’ preferences is critical since it promotes faster understanding and achievement of high grades in the assessments. For example, a learner who prefers learning through seeing will only perform highly if the teaching or assessment is undertaken through visuals such as diagrams and pictures. An instructor who knows that the learning preference of learner is visual will use images, shapes, and other relevant mathematical diagrams that would enhance inclusive and effective teaching, assessment and learning.
However, if a teacher does not identify and take account of the learners learning preferences, it will be difficult to teach and assess the individual. For instance, if the instructor uses lectures and discussions yet the learner prefers visuals, it will be quite challenging for the learner to learn or understand anything and that would result in high failure in the assessments or examination.
Moreover, taking into account and identifying the learning preferences of a learner promotes inclusive teaching, assessment, and learning since the teacher will know all the strengths and weaknesses of the child. The preferences of a learner are his strengths; hence, a teacher will focus on the strengths of the learner during the teaching and assessment to ensure that student performs highly. For example, some of the learning preferences of a child may include observation, conceptual thinking, representations, and explanations; thus, they are the strengths which will enable learners to learn Kg stage 1 mathematics easily without any challenge or difficulty. Besides, upon knowing the weaknesses or things that a learner does not like, a teacher would try to teach the learner in other to eliminate those weaknesses, which will promote inclusive learning and assessment.
It is obvious that learning preferences are important elements that both learners and teachers must put into consideration to promote an inclusive learning, teaching, and assessment. Learning preference models such as the Honey-Mumford Model depict the need of relying on what the children prefer to improve their excellence or performance. Therefore, learning theories, models and principles are essential in the teaching, learning, assessment of students or children.