Rebecca Collings Narrative Across Media In this thesis is will be answering the questions How does narrative structure adapt to different media? What are the various affordances and/or limitations on narrativity in different media? How does the writer employ narrative structure in his/her work? I will be looking upon the discussion from Avatars of story by Marie-Laure Ryan where discussed four conditions of narrativity Spatial, Temporal, Mental and pragmatic (2006) Narrative is involved in all parts of life through time, culture and hypertexts it is both mental and textual and is constructed though settings, events and plots creating a mental image. Narrative is defined by Marie-Laure Ryan as ‘A mental construction which can be activated through different types of signs.’ To understand a narrative successfully the narrative must clearly narrate the events and actions that are unfolding clearly to the reader the events and actions are reflected through dimensions such as time and space multiple dimensions of events create narrative comprehension. The different dimensions are Spatial, Temporal, Mental, Formal and Pragmatic. there are 8 nrrative dimensions. Spatial Dimension Narrative must be about a world populated by individuated existents. Temporal Dimension The world must be situated in time and undergo significant transformations. The transformations must be caused by nonhabitual physical events. Mental Dimension Some of the participants in the events must be intelligent agents who have a mental life and react emotionally to the states of the world. Some of the events must be a purposeful action by these agents motivated by identifiable goals and plans, Formal and Pragmatic Dimensions The sequence must form a unified causal chain and lead to closure The occurrence of at least some of these events must be asserted as fact in the story world. The story must communicate something meaningful to the recipient. Each of these conditions prevents a certain type of representation of help to form the focus of interest in the story and its narrative. But these conditions can solely support a narrative. Does not have representation of established bodies and classes of the human race. Gets rid of descriptions Gets rid of events that changed natural evolution Removes the scenarios which involve natural forces like weather reports. With 3 removes representation of mental events and does not include monologue Removes unconnected events like diaries and problem-solving action that stops before an outcome can be reached. Removes instructions and advice Removes bad stories which it the most controversial condition as it creates a border between definition and poetics as a full theory is needed to create a narrative. To understand a narrative, you must involve cognitive skills which are skills your brain uses every day to read, learn, remember, reason, pay attention and to think we use these skills in understanding narrative by learning the relationship between states and events, the time of the event and the behavior of the character and the actions they may take. And once the skills work together the narrative will be formed as a mental image creating the narrative. Narrative differences across media in three different narrative domains semantics, pragmatics and syntax. Semantics is the study of plot or story, pragmatics is the study of the use of narrative and syntax is the study of discourse. Semantics is used in differently in deafferent media as film prefer narratives that have a 3-act structure act one which is the set up where the beginning will take place along with an enticing incident and second thoughts the second act will then take place which is the confrontation where obstacles, a big twist disaster and crisis will take place which is the climax of part 2 then act three will take place with the resolution and the descending action the wrap up and the end of the film. this structure is known as the Aristotelian arc. Tv shows use episodic narratives which have multiple plot lines like friends which is an abstract series or narrative anthology which is composed of a series of shorter tails which are disconnected but create a bigger story as a whole. Syntax which is the study of discourse comics are a classic example of how this is used in different media and pragmatics the study of the use of narrative can be shown in blogg or hypertext fiction. There are four different approaches to narrative there is the practical approach, metaphorical approach, the expansionist and the traditional approach. The piratical approach is not concerned with development of the narrative but the importance of story’s in the readers life. Unlike other approaches it does not consider digital forms of story telling a problem. The metaphorical approach gains inspiration from narrative concepts to help the design of computer applications which their purpose may not be the telling of a story. The expansionist approach regards narrative as a concept which changes from culture to culture and evolves through history and can be affected by technology innovations. The traditionalist approach conceives narrative as antiinvariant core meaning that separates narrative from discourse. Discourse conveys a story, Discourse is a convocation an instance of communication, Story is a mental image formed by characters within a setting. Narrative modes help us to develop a narrative script which is he mental image of the narrative this can be through someone telling someone about an event that happened to them this is an exapmple of narrating. A narrative mode is a way to help being in the cognitive construct which helps define narrative. narrative modes are not independent from one another. narrative modes are as such. External/ internal- external mode are where narratives are encoded in material signs and internal mode is where the mode does not involve textualization. Fictional/nonfictional is where the narrative involves this world of a possible world. Representational/ simulative – representational mode is where it encodes a fixed sequence and simulative mode is where a productive of multiple different possibilities. Diegetic/mimetic is- diegetic mode is where the narrative is communicated through telling and mimetic mode is where the narrative is communicated though showing. Autotelic/utilitarian- autotelic mode is where a story is told for its own sake and utilitarian mode is where a story is subordinated to another goal. Autonomous/ illustrative- autonomous mode is where the story is new to the person is being told to and illustrative mode with where the story is retold and completes a story which is dependent on the person it is being told to knowledge of the story. Scripted/emergent- scripted mode is where a story and discourse are fixed and emergent mode is where discourse and some of the story being told are created live. Receptive/ participatory- Receptive mode is where the recipient plays no role in the discourse or the story and participatory mode is where the active participation of the recipient actualizes and completes the story on the level of discourse and /or story. Determinate/ indeterminate- determinate mode is where the text specifies enough point along the story arc to form a definite script and indeterminate mode is where only a few points are given the recipient and then the recipient fills in the rest of the information. Retrospective/simultaneous and prospective mode is where the recounting of the past, current and future events are being told. Literal/metaphorical – Literal mode is where the narrative satisfies most or all of the 8 dimensions and metaphorical mode is where there are violations of a number of the dimensions. There are three ways to analyze media there are media as semiotic phenomena, media as technology and media as cultural practice. Media as semiotic phenomena are language, images and music. Language can represent temporality, change, thought and dialogue and make references to objects and properties with difficulty it can represent spatial relations and can help the reader to creat a map of a story world but language cannot show what a character ot setting look like it can’t display visuals to the reader and only help the reader create an image. Images can immerse the redder in space ad create a map world visually as well as for the character and the setting but it can’t show the flow of time, thought or dialog can only help create judgments on what is happening. Music can capture time and suggest the narration which is happening and can create a feeling and a setting as well as an emotion or suspended but it cannot represent thought, dialog or create a visual image. Media as technologies allows to focus in on the fact of specific material that supports fractures broadband categories of sin systems into specific subtypes such as printing, writing and culture Media as cultural practice lack a distinct semiotic technological identity such as newspapers vs books and the evolution of media forms depend on cultural pressures.