Promotion is an action taken by a company’s marketing staff with the intention of encouraging the sale of a good or service to their target market. For example, product promotion performed by a typical business might take the form of advertising the product in question via print or Internet ads, direct mail or e-mail letters, trade shows, telephone and personal sales calls, TV and radio ads, billboards, posters and flyers.
Public Relations – Public relationship is one of the elements of company promotion within activities of marketing mix. Public relationship represent communication of company and establishment of relationship with different stakeholder groups: consumers, employees, shareholder, government and different social groups.
Sponsorship – is a specialised kind of public relations and increasingly popular, particularly with larger businesses. A business will sponsor an event, team or individual in order to build brand awareness. A secondary objective might be to emphasize social or ethical credentials, but most sponsorship really does have a commercial objective at heart.
Social and Other Media – The emergence of Internet-based social media has made it possible for one person to communicate with hundreds or even thousands of other people about products and the companies that provide them. Thus, the impact of consumer-to-consumer communications has been greatly magnified in the marketplace. The first role of social media is reliable with the use of traditional IMC (Integrated marketing Communication) tools. That is, companies can use social media to talk to their customers through such platforms as blogs, as well as Facebook and MySpace groups. These media may either be company- sponsored or sponsored by other individuals or organizations. The second promotion-related role of social media is unique: customers can use it to communicate with one another.
The impact of using social media a part of IMC can be as follows:
• Studies show that, consumers are turning away from the traditional sources of advertising: radio, television, magazines and newspapers. So the scope of social media increases.
• Consumers will depend more frequently to various types of social media to conduct their information searches and to make their purchasing decisions
• Consumers perceive social media as a more trustworthy source of information regarding products and services than corporate-sponsored communications transmitted via the traditional elements of the promotion mix.
Guerrilla Marketing – The original term was coined by Jay Conrad Levinson in his 1984 book ‘Guerrilla Advertising’. The term guerrilla marketing was inspired by guerrilla warfare which is a form of irregular warfare and relates to the small tactic strategies used by armed civilians. Many of these tactics includes ambushes, sabotage, raids and elements of surprise. Much like guerrilla warfare, guerrilla marketing uses the same sort of tactics in the marketing industry.
This alternative advertising style relies heavily on unconventional marketing strategy, high energy and imagination. Guerrilla marketing is about taking the consumer by surprise, make an indelible impression and create copious amounts of social buzz. Guerrilla marketing is said to make a far more valuable impression with consumers in comparison to more traditional forms of advertising and marketing. This is due to the fact that most guerrilla marketing campaigns aim to strike the consumer at a more personal and memorable level.
Personal Selling – Personal selling is where businesses use people (the “sales force”) to sell the product after meeting face-to-face with the customer. The sellers promote the product through their attitude, appearance and specialist product knowledge. They aim to inform and encourage the customer to buy, or at least trial the product.
A good example of personal selling is found in department stores on the perfume and cosmetic counters. A customer can get advice on how to apply the product and can try different products. Products with relatively high prices, or with complex features, are often sold using personal selling. Great examples include cars, office equipment (e.g. photocopiers) and many products that are sold by businesses to other industrial customers.
The main advantages and disadvantages of personal selling can be summarised as follows:
• High Customer Attention
• Message is customised
• Persuasive impact
• Potential for development of relationship
• Opportunity to close the sale • High Cost
• Labour Intensive
• Can only reach limited number of customers
Product Placement – product placement is the promotion of branded goods and services within the context of a show or movie (or even personal videos) rather than as an explicit advertisement. When you see a product or service appear in a TV show, or in a motion picture, the company behind it has usually paid for their brand to appear on screen or on the radio.
Also known as embedded marketing or advertising, the practice has been around for decades, but marketers have become much more sophisticated in the ways they use it. Once a very obvious form of sponsorship, product placement can now fly under the radar.
Some of the most infamous product placement scenes in movies include:
– Reese’s Pieces in E.T. The Extra Terrestrial (1982)
– BMW Mini Cooper in The Italian Job (2003)
As the advertising landscape has shifted dramatically to social platforms like YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, brands are using these channels for product placement opportunities. For example, YouTubers with millions of followers will happily wear branded clothing, or use branded items, to spread the word about that product to their fan base. TV shows and movies will also tap “social influencers” to grab this new audience through a much different medium than TV and movies.
Digital Marketing – Digital marketing is an umbrella term for all of your online marketing efforts. Businesses leverage digital channels such as Google search, social media, email, and their websites to connect with their current and prospective customers.
The reality is, people spend twice as much tiame online as they used to 12 years ago. And while we say it a lot, the way people shop and buy really has changed, meaning offline marketing isn’t as effective as it used to be.
Marketing has always been about connecting with your audience in the right place and at the right time. Today, that means that you need to meet them where they are already spending time: on the internet.
Corporate Image – It is a composite psychological impression that continually changes with the firm’s circumstances, media coverage, performance, pronouncements, etc. Similar to a firm’s reputation or goodwill, it is the public perception of the firm rather than a reflection of its actual state or position. Unlike corporate identity, it is fluid and can change overnight from positive to negative to neutral. Large firms use various corporate advertising techniques to enhance their image in order to improve their desirability as a supplier, employer, customer, borrower, etc.