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Firstly, the Ancient Egyptian building structure that incorporates light into its design is called Abu-Simbel. It was originally located on the western bank of Lake Nasser in southern Egypt when it was built by Ramses II in the 13th Century BC. However, it had to be relocated between 1964-68 AD when a newly built reservoir threatened to put the whole structure underwater. The original place is now underwater and its new location is roughly 200 feet higher than it was. Abu-Simbel consists of two massive temples, one dedicated to the sun gods (Amon-Re and Re-Horakte) and the other slightly smaller one dedicated to Nefertari (the wife of Ramses II) and was used for the worship of Hathor (the goddess of love).
The temple dedicated to the sun gods was designed in a way as to allow sun rays to penetrate deep inside and illuminate the shrines in the sanctuary. The sun rays would illuminate all of the shrines, except for one: the statue of Ptah, the God of the Underworld. This reflected the fact that he ruled over the dead, those who no longer see the daylight. The sun rays only reached inside on two days of the year on October 22 and February 22.
Secondly, the Mayan building incorporating light into its design is ‘El Castillo’ (also known as the Temple of Kukulkan) located in what used to be Chichen Itza and is now known as Tinum, Mexico. It was built around 800 BC and the structure functions as a Mayan calendar. Each side contains nine levels divided in 2 by a staircase forming 18 separate segments to represent 18-20 day months in the Mayan year. Each facade contains 52 panels, representing the 52 years in a Maya calendar round. All 4 stairways contain 91 steps and including the top platform that makes 365, one for each day of the year. The shadow play on the stairs give an impression of a serpent crawling down, whose head is carved at the bottom of the stairs. This represents the feathered serpent ‘Kulkulkan’ who is a Mayan snake deity.
Finally, the other building mentioned in lectures that deals with light in its design is the Pantheon in Rome, rebuilt in 118-128 AD. The dome structure allowing light to enter through the middle represents the heaven and originally the structure was covered in gold to represent the sun.

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