On It is claimed, that the Middle

On
the ground, the business of oil and extraction may look harmless, however
because of a valued resource, it is a cause of both social and political
turmoil. It is claimed, that the Middle East has some of the largest oil
reservoirs on earth, which explains the reason why two-thirds of oil that is
distributed around the world comes from that region. The Organization of
Petroleum Exporting Countries, also known as OPEC, is responsible for setting
oils prices in the global economy. According to an author Grama-Moldovan, Geta
the top ten countries with the greatest oil reserves are: Venezuela, Saudi
Arabia, Canada, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE, Russia, Libya and Nigeria. These
countries are members of OPEC respectively (1). Some business analysts believe,
many well-developed countries take advantage of capitalism because of crude
oil. On the other hand, developing countries suffer from the problems that
arise from crude oil. The following case study will explain the issues of
citizens of Nigeria that rises from crude oil because of symbiotic relationship
with oil corporations in which their government receives supports from upper-level
of oil corporations, while oil companies tries to maximize the profits from
countries’ abundant resources. To analyze in-depth, the presence of these oil
corporations in Nigeria has contributed to the price inflations, prostitution,
loss of property and irresponsible and fathering by expatriate oil workers.
However, is it difficult for any Nigerian to speak up against these actions
since any protest to unfair situations is counteracted by military repression
and death. In additional, it is not rare for military forces to be supported in
repression by oil companies. In explaining the sufferance of Nigerians,
renowned authors Majid Tehranian and B. Jeannire. Lum in their book explain, “oil
companies act as a destabilizing force, pitting one community against another,
and acting as a catalyst—together with the military with whom they work
closely—to some of the violence racking the region today” (85-86). This
clarifies that oil companies, like all corporations have the sole goal of
maximizing their profits—it doesn’t matter who and what is sacrificed, such as
human rights, freedom or liberty as long as they achieve their unlimited goal.

Furthermore,
besides the social and political issues in Nigeria caused by crude oil, the
country also suffers from economic inequality. Most of Nigerian economy is
centered around oil, however the inequality in wealth in the country remains
highs. The ones who can generate profits from the crude oil business are either
those who are involved in the governments or those who are affiliated with the
oil companies, while the rest of the country suffers from the poverty without
the any funding for resources or infrastructure. This unequal distribution of
wealth that exists in Nigeria today contributes to both social stratifications
in Nigeria and the world.  Without adequate
funding, average Nigerians lack equal opportunity and the methods to progress
in life. Additionally, this also promote retrogression, reinforcing worldwide
inequality.

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Besides,
its political, social, and economic ramifications, oil production and
consumption has several environmental repercussions. One of the famous and
well-known organization in north America is Chevron Corporation. They own
system of pipelines through Chevron Pipe Line Co. and outside of North America,
it operates and invests in other pipeline projects such as: The Baku-Supsa Pipeline,
The West African Gas Pipeline, The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, and The
Caspian Pipeline Consortium (Braginskii 12). Despite Chevron’s claim to have a
concern for the environment, it has committed more than a handful of
environmental violations. While it supports several environmental programs, it
funds groups that advocate for the environmental deregulations of corporations.
A few noticeable environmental concerns affiliated with Chevron that been
raised include the dumping of danger waster from oil refineries into drinking
water, oils spills form modes of transportation of oil, and global warming
(Chahill 45-47).  These issues may have
dire consequences, but the most visible and well-known is global warming. By
burning fossil fuels, humans release carbon dioxide that has been trapped
within the earth back into the atmosphere, creating greenhouse effect. The
burning of fossil fuels is leading to the increase in carbon dioxide in the
earth’s atmosphere which is, in turn leading to the increase in temperature.
This increase in temperature causes polar ice to amplify the effects of global
warming—the higher the temperature, the less ice there is to reflect rays from
the sun. As a result, the ocean absorbs more and more light and in turn
temperature continue to rise and melt polar ice, thereby completing the cycle (Cahills
48). This theory explains the negative and positive impacts of crude oil that
could affect the global warming.

Unless
there are reforestation programs that are not many in developing countries, oil
drilling decimates the local floral and fauna if done carelessly. This also applies
to drilling in the sea. The oil spill by Deepwater horizon oil rig operated by
BP comes to mind where sea life suffered long-term damages. In the end, the big
picture of oil production and consumption is quite incongruous when one is to
think about. Ironically, crude oil plays a key role in human life and drives
the civilizations that pumps the gas.