National Perspective.There are 18,000 islands in Indonesia which home nearly 250 million people, making it the fourth largestcountry in the world 12. Throughout the years Indonesia has been hit by several communicable diseases:Cholera twice, Tuberculosis, Malaria, Leprosy, HIV, Rabies and Dengue. Rabies was first detected inIndonesia in the late 80’s, thereupon spreading to 24 of the 33 provinces, Bali was one of the unfortunateprovince's effected. Rabies in Bali was first encountered in 2008, dogs from foreign countries spread thediseases like wildfire. Once the government was informed of the predicament they decided to shoot over108 thousand dogs between 2008 and October 2011, presuming Rabies would be eliminated. Dogorganizations in Bali, such as BAWA and WSPA fought the slaughtering. The organizations raised moneyfor vaccinations, approximately 210 thousand dogs were vaccinated afterwards, 70% of the Bali dogpopulation during 2010 7. The Government also prohibited the transportation of dogs in and out of theisland, so the virus wouldn’t spread. Considering the speed the communicable disease was transmitted, ifthe government hadn’t taken action within the course of a few years almost double the dog populationwould have been effected, leading to an increase in human fatalities. The last case of a rabid dog was lastyear, 2012. Since then less cases have been reported, although there are 100 – 120 bites per dayaccording to the health agency. 8 Personally I have been bitten by a dog twice, and immediately had toget 3 shots to ensure I didn’t get the virus.A communicable disease, also known as a contagious disease, is a germ/pathogen or virus which has theability to spread from one living organism to another. Once you ‘catch’ a disease and your body has beeninvaded by a certain germ you can identify its category, there are four kinds of germs: Bacterial, Viruses,Fungal and Protozoa. 4Every year up to 18.3 million people die from communicable diseases, a quarter of the fatalities worldwide1. The top eight deadly infectious diseases whichcause the majority of deaths consist of: respiratory,Diarrheas, Tuberculosis, Malaria, AIDS, Measles,Hepatitis B and Tetanus 2. The terrifying truthremains that thousands of these communicablediseases are spreading around you at this verymoment, especially AIDS in Indonesia. The pie chartbelow is from WHO ( World Health Organization)representing the causes of deaths worldwide, theinformation was recorded in 1999 so the statisticshave risen since then, although the information is stilla legitimate example.In addition to the top eight infectious diseases, the AIDS/ HIV epidemic in Indonesia has become a seriousrisk to the population; the infection rate is above 5% in consideration to the growing population. 14 In2010, 5 million Indonesians were tested positive with the communicable disease, ranking Indonesia number94 out of 166 countries 18. In salvation the IndonesianPartnership Fund aimed to support AIDS/HIV patientsthroughout 2005-2007 to decrease the spread of the deadlydisease by educating and providing the community with ‘safesex’ information, this way child can educate theirfamilies at home. Individually I have only met two peoplewhich tested positive for HIV in Bali, Indonesia.The most used medicinal prevention of harmfuldiseases would include taking a vaccination,which creates a slight immunity. As of19 November 2009, over 65 million doses ofvaccine had been administered in over 16countries. 13 Although vaccinations are registered throughout South East Asia routinely, countries suchas: India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Timor-Leste, health organizations have yet to achieve full coverage overeach disease considering their ability to spread. Below is a graph representing the communicable diseasesthroughout Asia, organized by the disease's prevalence.Tuberculosis (TB), is the 7th most extensive communicable disease on the Asian scale. Tuberculosis wasfirst discovered Indonesia In 2006, killing up to 250 people every day, estimating a whopping 500 millionevery year. Tuberculosis’s method of spreading involves coughing and sneezing because of the airbornetubercle nuclei, unfortunately airborne diseases have the capability to spread faster. Once the Indonesiangovernment reduced the prevalence of TB from 298:100,000 in 2002, to 253:100,000 in 2006 by medicineand vaccinations information referring to tuberculosis became easier to access by the local communities:about hygiene and staying healthy internally and externally. Currently Tuberculosis can be monitored and’cured’ efficiently within a few weeks because of our generations resources.Global Perspective.Disease prevalence depends on countries: economic standpoint, availability to medicinal products, hygieneand education. Throughout the years statistics have shown developed countries have less communicablediseases compared to developing. Tests have shown Americans have a higher nutrient content incomparison to Africans in light of the high fat diets, which then protects the body from invading germs. Isthat to say countries with less processed foods are at higher risk? Here in Bali people eat rice up to threetimes a day, every meal. In addition the high starch content must have the same effects on the local’simmune system.When traveling though the pacific I had multiple vaccinations for Tetanus, Bird Flu, Malaria, Rabies,Typhoid,Tuberculosis, yellow fever and several others. Taking these vaccinations would hopefully preventme from getting the disease in the future, although there’s still a chance of catching the disease.Personally, I have experienced a communicable disease in Bali last year. I had caught the 3rd most globalburden, Dengue, for the second time. Dengue is transported though mosquitoes, like Malaria, unfortunatelymosquitoes love tropical climates and damp marshes, leading to a mass of mosquitoes spreading thedisease consistently. The Indonesian community is aware of the dangers the virus can cause, I have seensigns on the road encouraging the locals to wear repellant and gas their houses. The local cures fordengue include eating guava, they eat guava because the fruit increases your platelet count which in turnspeeds up your recovery.Communities and developed regions each acquire different ‘cures’ for a diseases – for example the guavafruit- whereas locations obtaining medicine don’t undergo such procedures. Countries which possesfunding for antidotes can currently hire scientists to experiment on communicable diseases, in search of asolutions and cures. When experimenting on the diseases they have to ensure they don’t spread the virusoutside the lab, they determine its safe by following the levels of containment: Primary containment,Secondary containment and Agricultural containment. 9 Scientists also have to wear Biosafety suits whenexposed to the dangerous viruses, so they themselves are not infected. The Biosafety suits resemble’space suits’, they are completely covered by thick material. A general definition of “biosafety” is the’procedures and use of equipment needed to ensure safety in all facilities that work with infectiousmicroorganisms and other hazards’.In 2008 a UFC professor started developing and experimenting on a vaccine for the Black Deathplague,’The Black Death’ was one of the many sporadic outbreaks after the Plague of Justinian during the14th century. The Justinian plague claimed to take as many as 200 million lives throughout history, a 10thousand people every day. The Black Plague was brought to Rome by soldiers returning from war inMesopotamia, killing millions in 165 AD. ‘The Black Plague’ affected Europe severely, records say therewere 25 million deaths, one fourth of their entire population ‘The Black Plague’ killed those who wereinfected within 3-7 days, the cause of death was how the lymphatic glands turned black, decaying the skinwhile the person is still alive. The plague was spread by rodents, fleas, and other unhygienic animals whichcame into contact. The disease was finally contained by obtaining;• Clean air, the Black Death became pneumonic, the ability to travel though the atmosphere withoutcontact, so sweeping, using incense or damp cloths was essential around your home.• Hygiene, people began to wash themselves more regularly killing the microorganisms.• Public health surveillance, providing necessary to the public addressing the diseases and warning thecommunity.• Quarantine, the sick would gather themselves into mass ‘grave sites’ while the healthy would lockthemselves in their homes.• Migration policies, travelers started realizing the dangers of traveling. Also migrants changed corse toother countries, causing spreading to decrease. 11• Education, teaching the communities how the disease spread and how to prevent it from harming yourselfsignificantly stunted the diseases growth.Corresponding to the ‘Black Death Plague’, diseases can only be contained in a community by securinghygienic living conditions. Hygiene is one of the main factors influencing the spread of diseases. LifeBuoy -a soap company – is determined to make a change by 2015 when it comes to washing your hands andbody. LifeBuoy’s aim’s to change 1 billion people’s hygienic behavior across Asia, Africa and Latin America,in hope to decrease the spread of diseases – for example cholera- and increase health in the community.15 Personally I haven’t witnessed the ‘LifeBuoy’ program in Bali, although I’m sure the Hygienic soapswould aid thousands of people in Bali itself.One of the most well known organizations involved in disease prevention and support is WHO: The WoldHealth Organization. WHO investigates health issues, gathering information and later warning communitiesand villages of the dangers the population is facing, communicable or not. Furthermore WHO helps providemedicine and necessary resources to people in need. Recently, on the 4th of June 2013 WHO warnedSyria of a possible disease outbreak from the water: hepatitis, typhoid, cholera and dysentery werepotential threats to the community. According to WHO 35% of the country's public hospitals were out ofservice because 70% of the health employees had fled, running from possible contamination. 4.25 millionSyrians left their homes hoping for safety, unfortunately ending up in an overcrowded unsanitary condition.Humans perceive there is safety in numbers, although that is incorrect. Once large groups of people aretogether in an enclosed concentration camp, the disease can only spread faster. Even though a highpercentage of the survivors are healthy and 1% is sick the likelihood the disease will spread is 100%,especially if provisions of safe drinking water and medicine are unavailable. 10Personal Perspective.People continually perceive that sicknesses and diseases can be prevented by medicine, this is partiallytrue, although medicine can’t do it alone. Preserving your body’s internal and external health is a definitefactor determining your infection rate. Personally I have never been to the hospital because of a sickness;perhaps I just haven't gotten a severe sickness yet. People are regularly surprised by my records involvingthe doctor, their curious how I’ve managed to stay out of the hospital. Possibly it’s because I’m young andgrowing, although my perception is that I just try to eat healthy, exercise and wash my hands and bodyregularly. Perhaps if the government became aware of how healthy eating and exercising can preventinfection and decrease medical bills, imaginably they would invest in educating the community. Thegovernment would spend minuscule amounts of money educating people in-comparison to hospital andmedicinal fees, in addition the money could be spent on the welfare of the country.Possible Solutions.Education, in my opinion, is the most significant solution to containing communicable diseases. Oncepeople understand how a disease spreads they can prevent and eradicate it, only once before in historyhas a communicable disease been wiped out that disease was smallpox in the 1980’s 6. Techniqueswhich could improve the spread of information concerning a disease could include: Images, novels, shortfilms and face to face verbal explanations. Considering the diversity of languages throughout the world,social media would be the best way to educate the current generation. Teens in particular spreadawareness and get informed through technology; Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram and so on.Within the next few generations people should primarily focus on preserving their internal health.Communities could host annual yoga events which increase the well being of your physical and internalstate, in addition annual super markets selling healthy foods which boost your immune system could beheld. Every step towards healthy living will decrease your possibility of getting sick, so taking care ofyourself is practically free compared to medicine and hospital bills, your body just needs help to preservingitself. Although I’m an adolescent with a strong immune system I still fear being infected by acommunicable disease, especially when I get older there’s less guarantee of obtaining a healthy body.Every single traveler should be vaccinated before entering a country. Not just travelers, locals and childrenwithin the community. This precaution should be enforced; traveler’s medical records should be checkedonce they reach the border line so new diseases cannot spread into other communities and countries. Inrelation a solution to decreasing the infection rate, for example within the quarantine method, shouldinclude: separating the patients, sterilizing the working equipment and multiple baths per day to eachpatient. I am aware that obtaining a large enough work forces would be nearly impossible, especially if itsvolunteer work. Nevertheless the hygienic method would decrease the spreading.Personal Response.Despite the fact that I’ve been suggesting throughout this report that communicable diseases could ceaseto spread with certain precautions, it’s impossible. Our world has never been completely disease free andhealthy, not with education, vaccinations, hygiene or perfect body conditions. Personally I perceive it neverwill, even if new medicines are being created our growing population will continue to transmit viral diseases.Ironically, humans depend on diseases, without them millions of pharmacists, doctors and scientists wouldbe unemployed. Economically diseases improve our society, there is always benefit to something even ifit’s harmful in the long run.Future Scenarios.Throughout generations diseases could become more dangerous, adapting against man made medicines,in turn spreading through uneducated communities with minimal hygienic recourses with increased velocity.In salvation communities should retrieve free health care from the government to all ages, races andgender. An example of a disease which can spread viscously within a society is cholera; neverthelesscholera can be cured if treated quickly with hydration salts16http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jG1VNSCsP5Q.Imagine a world where it was mandatory to exercise and eat healthy foods at least once a day, for the restof your life. Schools would provide healthy organic snacks and lunches annually, the foods would containeasily accessible ingredients which improve your immune system, such as: onions, carrots, mushrooms,ginger, black pepper and citrus fruits 19 Furthermore schools would force students to practice certainexercises in PE class and see a councilor every day so adolescents had perfect physical and mentalhealth. Once humans obtain such strong and absolute perfect immune systems their genes can be passedon throughout the generations, mutations which repel diseases.