Name: Nishidh Patel

University ID: U87470301

Department: Electrical Engineering

Major: Renewable Energy and Power Systems

Title: Graduate Student Portfolio

CURRICULUM PROGRAM OF STUDY

• Advanced mathematics courses:

Course 1 – EEL 6027 Engineering Applications of Vector Analysis

Faculty – Dr. Ralph Fehr

Course 2 – EEL 6545 Random Processes in Electrical Engineering

Faculty – Dr. Arthur Snider

• Primary area of specialization (Sequence 1):

Course 1 – EEL 5250 Power System Analysis

Faculty – Dr. Lingling Fan

Course 2 – EEL 6285 Energy Delivery Systems

Faculty – Dr. Lingling Fan

• Secondary area of specialization (Sequence 2):

Course 1 – EEL 6936 Power Electronics

Faculty – Dr. Zhixin Miao

Course 2 – EEL 6227 Electric Machines and Motor Drives

Faculty – Dr. Ralph Fehr

EEL 6027 Engineering Applications of Vector Analysis

Engineering Applications of Vector Analysis gives a comprehension of the strategies for vector variable-based

math and analytics to the degree that will promptly take after those works which make utilization of them, and

further, will have the capacity to utilize it in own particular branch of science. New ideas and techniques are

presented by Dr. Ralph Fehr are delineated by cases drawn from fields with which the understudy is recognizable.

The course started with Course Overview and then basic concept of Vector Algebra which includes Addition,

Subtraction, Scalar Multiplication, Cartesian Coordinates, Space Vectors and Types of Vector

Course Content: Equations of Lines, Scalar Products, Equations of Planes, Orientation, Vector Products 6, Triple

Scalar Products, Vector Identities, Space Curves , Velocities, Tangents, Acceleration, Curvature, Planar Rotation in Polar

Coordinates, Del Notation, Scalar Fields, Isometric Surfaces, Gradient, Vector Fields, Flow Lines, Cylindrical Coordinates,

Spherical Coordinates, Conversion between Coordinate Systems, Divergence, Curl, Laplacian, Vector Identities, Line

Integrals, Simply-Connected Domains, Conservative Fields, Oriented Surfaces, Surface Integrals, Volume Integrals,

Divergence Theorem, Stokes’ Theorem, Green’s Theorem, The Transport Theorems.

From Geometry applications of Vector we proved different statement on quadrilateral and some of them are as

follows:

“Line segments drawn from the vertex of parallelogram to the mid-point of the opposite sides trisects a diagonal”

“If the mid=points of the consecutive sides of a quadrilateral are joined by line segments the resulting quadrilateral

is a parallelogram.”

Acceleration component: In a Kinetic field to discover Velocity and it’s segment is significantly more

imperative to know the movement of a particle at a specific point which gives us a data about that particle in a

space. For understanding it better it is important to comprehend about Acceleration Component. Dr. Fehr clarified

it in a innovative way. The formula is shown underneath,

We can describe point P in three different way,

(a)Polar coordinate, (b) Cylindrical coordinate, (c) Cylindrical coordinate.

Gradient, Divergence and Curl: Three imperative things and it’s application depicted by educator is

compressed here. The Gradient is what you get when you “multiply” Del by a scalar function. The Divergence is

what you get when you “dot” Del with a vector field. The Curl is what you get when you “cross” Del with a vector

field. The gradient is a slope, the divergence measures the spreading out of fields, and the curl measures the

circulation of fields. Gradient, divergence and curl are used a lot in fluid.

Engineering Applications of a vectors are in many areas. Some of them which we studied throughout the

course are as below:

(a) Electromagnetics: With the use of Gauss’s law for Electricity and Magnetism, Faraday’s law and

Ampere’s law we can use vector concept and applied it to solve real electromagnetics problem.

(b) Fluid Mechanics: Incompressible Flow is an isochronic (constant volume) process whwre the density

within an infinitesimal volume that moves with the flow velocity is constant. This implies that the

divergence of the flow velocity is zero.

(c) Heat transfer: Fourier’s law

(d) Illumination

(e) Edge Detection by Computer Graphics

EEE 6545 Random Processes in Electrical engineering

Random Process in Electrical Engineering shows relevance of probability theory to engineering practice. It tends

to challenge by examining the part of likelihood models in building plan. Practical current applications from

different territories of electrical and computer engineering are utilized to demonstrate how averages and relative

frequencies give the correct tools to taking care of the outline of frameworks that include randomness. These

application areas include wireless and digital communications, digital media and signal processing, system

reliability, computer networks, and Web systems.

Course Content: Probability, Delta function, Moments, Derived Normal, Bivariate Gaussian, Marginal

Conditional, Averaging, Random Processes, Gaussian Processes, Spectral Estimation, The Bernoulli and

Binomial Processes, The Wiener Filter, Bartlett, ARMA Yule Walker, Least Mean-Square Error Predictors,

Normal Equation, Bias, Kalman Filter, Scalar Kalman Filter with Noisy Transition, Poisson’s Theorem.

The Additive law of Probability: ‘The probability of A or B equals the probability of A plus the probability of

B minus the probability of both A and B.’ From the example of

billiard balls and sky Dr. Snider explained us this law. From this law we understood the basics of probability and

it’s implementation to real world problem.

A probability density function (“pdf”) is a function fx(x) defined for all real x that is never negative and has

total integral equal to 1. pdf has to be a area 1 and can never be negative. From The Normal or Gaussian

Distribution we understood that noise processes are described by probability density functions(pdf) some of

which are normally distributed. So for dealing with noise and fundamental limits in design, we need to understand

Gauss Distribution.

Example on Wiener Filter and Least Mean-Square Error is shown below:

The Kalman filter is an intense instrument with regards to controlling noisy systems. The fundamental thought of a

Kalman channel is: Noisy information in ? ideally less noisy data out. The applications of a Kalman filter are

various: Tracking objects (e.g., rockets, faces, heads, hands), Fitting Bezier patches to point information, Economics,

Navigationss

EEL 5250 Power System Analysis

Power System Analysis gave us a knowledge into the fundamental components of electrical power transmission

and distribution systems, for example, generators, transmission and distribution lines and loads. It offered

systematic tools for analysis of essential activities of the systems. Issues related with power flow and utilization

of numerical calculations such Gauss-Siedel, Newton-Raphson was explained. Fault calculation and analysis,

symmetrical components and protection systems: Analytical strategies for understanding symmetrical (balanced)

flaws, protection systems also covered by Dr. Lingling Fan in details.

Course Content: Circuit analysis basics & Per unit calculation which includes phasors for ac signals wit two

theorems KCL, KVL, How to get rid of transformers so that a power grid looks like a circuit with voltage sources

and passive components such as R, L, C, ,Fault analysis which included Z matrix-based three-phase fault analysis

and Unbalanced fault analysis based on symmetric components, Transmission line modeling and Steady-state

operation – the basic power and voltage phasor relationship, Load flow analysis, Nonlinear algebraic equations

solving techniques (Gaussian, Newton-Raphson), Scope of the methods or when the NR method do not work

well?, Voltage stability and maximum loading, State estimation, Economic Dispatch.

From the subject I studied Comprehensive analysis of single and three-phase AC power circuits which includes

calculations of real, reactive and complex powers, and power factor correction. Calculation of active and reactive

power transfer between buses, maximum power transfer, static stability limit. Power circle construction and

analysis. Synchronous generator models, voltage stability, transient stability, primary control devices (Governor

and Exciter). Load flow calculations, numerical methods analysis and, Gauss method, Gauss-Seidel method,

Newton-Raphson method and simplified approximate method. Computer simulation packages, Matlab/Simulink

(SimPower) and Python.

Example on Sweeping Method: For the following radial system, assuming that the complex power

consumed by the load is 1 + j 0.5 pu, z=j0.2pu. Bus 1connects to the substation and its voltage phasor is V1= 1 ?

0

?

.The online load tap changing transformer can be treated as an ideal transformer to fine tune secondary side

voltage. In this case, the voltage ratio from left to the right is 1:1.05. Find V2 and ?2 using sweeping method or

Newton-Raphson method.

MATLAB CODES:

V1=1;

P2=1;

Q2=0.5;

S2=P2+j ?Q2 ;

z=0.2? j ;

Y=1/ z ?1/z ; 7 ?1/z 1/ z ;

V2( 1 ) =1;

for k=1:8

%Q20=imag (V20 ?( co n j (Y( 2 , 1 ) ) ? co n j (V1)+co n j (Y( 2 , 2 ) ) ? co n j (V20) ) ) ;

I21 ( k ) = co n j ( S2/V2( k ) ) ;

V_1( k ) = V2( k ) + z ? I21 ( k ) ;

V2( k+1)=V1 ? z ? I21 ( k ) ;

e r r ( k+1) = V_1( k ) ? V1 ;

end

plot ( abs(V2) ) ; hold on ;

plot ( abs(V_1) ) ;

disp (V2) ;

Final Result is shown in the below table.

Iterations I21 V2 V1

1 1.0 – 0.5000i 0.9000 – 0.2000i 1.1000 + 0.2000i

2 0.9412 – 0.7647i 00.8471 – 0.1882I 1.0529 – 0.0118i

3 1.0000 – 0.8125i 3 0.8375 – 0.2000i 1.0096 + 0.0118i

4 0.9947 – 0.8346i 0.8331 – 0.1989i 1.0044 – 0.0011i

5 1.0000 – 0.8390i 0.8322 – 0.2000i 1.0009 + 0.0011i

6 0.9995 – 0.8410i 0.8318 – 0.1999i 1.0004 – 0.0001i

7 1.0000 – 0.8414i 0.8317 – 0.2000i 1.0001 + 0.0001i

8 1.0000 – 0.8416i 0.8317 – 0.2000i 1.0000 – 0.0000i

Difference between Load Flow and State Estimation was justified by Professor which is :Load flow analysis is

basically calculation of flow of power through the network and hence change in the value of voltage and angle of

corresponding buses of the network and state estimation is a digital algorithm to provide raw data to reliable data

and it usually provides the value with minimal error and SE tries to capture true condition of voltages ,angles etc.

EEL 6285 Energy Delivery Systems

Energy Delivery Systems gave us the knowledge regarding the fundamentals of electric power systems and

synchronous generator modeling. It also dive information regarding delivery systems to facilitate the integration

of distributed energy resources, including wind, solar, battery, etc. Microgrid and it’s concept with difference

between microgrid and Smartgrid explained briefly by Dr.Zhixin Miao. Different types of Voltage Source

Converters and it’s types with how they works and implementation of it in Project work was explained by

Professor.

Difference between Microgrid and Smartgrid: Micro-grid is a small grid that provides power to a

moderately small assortment of residential, official or commercial building in a locality. Presently, the created

and expended control by and large lies in Kilo-Watt (10 to the power level.Compare this to National grid, which

serves power in the Gigawatt level. If we take our national grid as a reference and measure the small grid

mentioned earlier, we will find that by multiplying a ‘uW’ (Mirco watt) to our national grid capacity, we are

reaching at the capacity of that small local grid. Thus the local grid is in micro levels as compared to the national

grid and hence is called Micro Grid.A Smart grid on the other hand is any grid that is completely automated.

Smart grids have the ability to respond automatically to the variations in electrical parameters responsible for the

smooth functioning of the grid. This is possible with the help of sensors, micro-controllers and many more.

Project Work: In the project we need to make multidisciplinary design with evaluation and proposed solutions

to real world problems in the renewable energy integration, voltage source converter, synchronous generator

dynamics, and microgrid. I had chosen the topic ‘Harmonics Reduction in 12 pulse converter with Active Filter’.

In 12-pulse converter the %THD ( Total Harmonics Distortion ) value for output voltage in Uncontrolled R Load

is 7.25% and for Controlled R Load 16.07% which is above permissible limit. To reduce it below permissible

limit we have to introduce both PASSIVE FILTER and ACTIVE FILTER or more number of pulses. If more

number of pulses are produced than there are many disadvantage like complexity in the circuit, increase in number

of switches , low power factor , high switching losses etc . To compensate above disadvantages in this project we

are going to study about HYBRID FILTER (both ACTIVE and PASSIVE filter ) and its application to mitigate

%THD ( Total Harmonics Distortion ) below 3%. Active filter is such a filter which response according to load

and measures current caused due to Harmonics known as ‘Distortion Current’ . By filtering out them from

Fundamental Current the ‘Non-linear Load Current’ active filter fed Distortion Current to the firing circuit. It will

generate ‘Compensating Current’ Compensating Current is injected to the load which is exactly in anti-phase

i.e.180 to reduce ‘Distortion Current’.

The circuit of my project is as shown below:

I am still currently working on this project and still lot to do. I am putting my best efforts towards the same.

EEL 6936 – Power Electronics

The subject of Power electronics started with an overview of power semiconductor switches. Then we studied converter topologies

that are used in most applications. We also cleared the concept of the power semiconductor devices used in power electronic

converters including diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs, thyristors, GTOs, IGBTs, and MCTs. Switch-mode dc and uninterruptible power

supplies and it’s applications was explained bt Dr. Miao. We also cleared the concept of the power semiconductor devices used

in power electronic converters including diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs, thyristors, GTOs, IGBTs, and MCTs. The practical concepts

of power electronic converter design, including snubber circuits, drive circuits, circuit layout was justified with the practical in

lab.

Course Project: In the project we have to make converter which can do both AC to Dc and then conversion

offixed DC to variable Dc.AC-DC Diode Rectifier with the use of 3 single phase Ac Source with magnitude of each is 208

volt and the frequency of them is 60 Hz and they have phase-shift of 120 degree.The model for AC-DC Diode rectifier is

shown below.

For DC-DC converter I used Buck Converter topology. AC/DC switch mode converter with Buck Converter model is as

below.

From this circuits FFT analysis of both fixed DC side voltage and Variable DC side voltage had been done. And

newer strategies had been implemented to improve Voltage and reduce the Harmonics.

EEL 6227 Electric Machines and Drives

From Electric Machines and Drives we learnt innovative ideas to implement power electronics with machines

and making it drives. The control of machines with power electronics along with it’s merits and demerits was

briefly explained by Dr. Miao. In one of the lecture he said how we ca save Energy with the use of drives is

summarized here. All power is produced by turning electrical generators, and around half of it is utilized to drive

electrical motors. This implies that increase in efficiency of electrical machines can have an extensive effect on

energy utilization. The key difficulties for increment in efficiency in systems driven by electrical machines lie in

three territories: (a) to broaden the application of variable-speed electric drives into new regions through decrease

of power electronic and control costs; (b) to integrate the drive and the driven load for getting maximum system

efficiency; and (c) to gain more efficiency of electrical drive itself. In the short to medium term, efficiency

improves inside electrical machines will come about because of the advancement of new materials and

construction techniques. With variable-speed drives, there is finished flexibility to fluctuate the speed of the

driven load. Supplanting fixed-speed machines with variable-speed drives for a high extent of mechanical burdens

could spare billion kWh of power for every year when joined with engine and drive efficiency picks up.

Course Content: Review of electric distribution systems, Power electronics systems for utility integration of

the distributed energy resources, microgrid and its elements, Voltage sourced converter (VSC) control and

operation in a power delivery system, Operation and control of a Microgrid, Synchronous generator modeling,

Term course project.

Course Project: In our project topic we must have (a)induction machine and drive system modeling,(b)

machine drive controller design, (c)drive applications (e.g. wind generation, electric vehicle), etc. Professor want

us to include induction machine, Voltage fed converter and PI controller. I chosen the topic of Control of ‘Control

of Doubly Fed Induction Generator’.

Abstract of the project is: Renewable energy are most useful way to produce electricity due to lack of natural

resources. Wind Power Plant is one of the most popular trend now a day to produce electricity due to lots of

benefits. DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) is required to produce electricity. In this project DFIG and its

control with PWM and ds-dq frame is mostly concentrated. To get steady and maximum torque with less

harmonics and production of qualitive electricity by using DFIG is the aim of the project. Final Circuit of the project:

THANK YOU

# NAME

NAME: OGORE MATAGA ANGELINE

SCHOOL: SOCIAL SCIENCES

DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

UNIVERSITY: MOUNTKENYA UNIVERSITY

YEAR OF STUDY: FIRST YEAR

UNIT CODE: DED 1301

UNIT TITLE: RESOURCE MOBILIZATION AND FUNDRAISING

DED 1301

RESOURCE MOBILIZATION AND FUNDRAISING

CAT 1

1. Outline and explain 5 methods/strategies of mobilizing financial resources for public development projects.

a) Donor agency

Donor is an organization or a person who willingly or voluntarily donates resources in form of money, information, materials and energy.

We can get financial resources from donor agencies to support any public project. It is a matter of writing a good proposal requesting for cash, material and energy resources from maximum number of donor agencies so that incase one refuses to give the donation, the other agencies are in a position to continue with their support. It is also advisable to expand the relations with the national, local, private and public sectors for a stable income generation.

The donation can also be in form of boxes where you request donations from the public by placing boxes in a stationary point. It can be a hospital, school, airports, or any other public places.

b) Fundraisings

This is a way of getting voluntary contributions of money or other resources. This can be done by organizing fundraising events whereby mobilizing of people can be done by distributing contribution papers, synthesizing the public through media, newspapers, audio visual materials, billboards, stickers or contacting them directly. This fundraising can also be by grants from the government or charitable organizations which are willing to contribute finance for public projects. The fundraising is done by inviting guest of honors in a place booked by an organization which can include churches, schools, stadiums, conference halls. This fundraising can be successful by having good communication skills and consulting the existing donors and the local communities.

c) Income generation

Income is money earned after work done. The work can either be self, public or private employed. Business oriented projects organizations can come together and contribute their incomes and other resources to start a public project in a different location of their choice. This type of resources mobilizing is done by the Indians and Somalis who mostly run family businesses. Although this is how they operate their businesses but most of them are generous and can contribute to start a public project which will help the surrounding and create employment opportunities to the public. Civil servants can decide to contribute some of their incomes to establish a public project. Most churches in the countryside are built using the contributions from incomes of their congregation.

d) Government policy

Tax is money payable to the government. This money is used to build schools, infrastructure, hospitals, stadiums and social amenities. It is also used to pay salaries of public servants. A public project can get its financial resources through the government by the proprietors writing proposals or during finance allocation to different places. Yearly during the budget reading the government allocates a certain amount of money to different firms for public projects. It can be for construction of bridges, infrastructure, schools or hospitals and this money is allocated to the government officials like governors, senators, members of parliament and head of different departments. The government can also borrow funds from developed countries or any good established film; get loans so that the money is distributed for the establishment of public projects.

e) By raising fees

This can be done when different organizations whether public, private or international decide to collect funds through increasing partnership by raising a certain fee to either goods or services rendered so as to acquire financial resources for a public project. The other way of raising fees would be for the NGOS to carry out the construction of public resting places, canals, schools, monastery, worshipping areas and hospitals; and the local body to pay back to the NGO. The county government on the other hand can collect some cash by raising the parking fees for vehicles, in the market stalls and the street vendors. This can be seen like harassing the less fortunate but with proper communication and negotiation skills, people will be able to understand what is happening. Also an organization can raise fees by selling its technical skills, becoming trainees or raising fees from visitors from individuals or organizations doing research in another organization

CAT 2

2. State and describe 5 skills required for effective resource mobilizing

a) Communication skills

Communication is a way of transmitting knowledge or information to someone else. To have an effective resource mobilizing, one has to have best communication skills to be able to convince people to mobilize resources. Mobilizing of resources to take place people have to be communicated to by either verbal or nonverbal; through media.

People have to be told the reasons for resource mobilization so as they can extend their contributions in form of cash, materials, information, energy or skills.

One needs also to communicate clearly both verbally or written to be able to give advice and inspire trust to develop a strong rapport otherwise getting the resources required will be hard because of the mistrust.

Leaders in a given organization needs to have good communication skills to be able to explain the specific goals and tasks. He should be able to master all forms of communication, including conversations, one-on-one and be computer literate to be able to communicate with people through media, phones and emails

b) Management and leadership skills

These skills are essential in resource mobilization because both involve decision-making, planning, communication and problem solving. For resources to be brought on board, it needs proper planning and communication to achieve the goal. People mobilizing the resources need to keep a record of all the events for future reference and be a role model.

In order to be an effective leader and manager, one needs more than a good attitude and intentions of uniting people. Unity is the key to strong bondage which is unbreakable thus making people to do great things and fight back in case of problem. If the leaders have good vision the team members will not feel confused but organized and have an initiate to prioritize thus leading to effective resource mobilization

c) Writing skills/financial reporting skills

Financial resources are one of the key resource mobilizations, for it to be effective the knowledge and skills of writing is needed especially in proposal writing to the donor agencies and other financing institutions. Good and appropriate proposal convinces people to contribute more resources unlike if a person writing the proposal or requisition does not have good writing and reporting skills.

On the other hand financial reporting skills are more effective in an organization because most of decisions of private or public organizations depends or relay on a good detailed and accurate financial reports. Inaccurate resource reports can damage the image of an organization thus discouraging investors and donors in investing in such places.

d) Interpersonal skills

In resource mobilization one needs to have a clue and be in a position to tackle complex problems as they arise. In any given organization misunderstandings are inevitable but how to deal with it needs more personal skills.

During resource mobilization, for it to be effective patience and courage is a guarantee because it is not easy to convince people to contribute their resources especially in grants and donations. Also in energy resource people will tend to be rigid but with patience and a convincing words one can harvest more than he thought off.

When mobilizing resources many obstacles may arise, when such problems arises one needs to be strong, these can be cases of theft, natural hazards and death many resources are destroyed and lost. The resources destroyed have to be replaced and this needs extra personal skills to mobilize them again.

Personal skills like trust and integrity are essential and lead to an effective resource mobilization. People need to trust someone with their resources. Trust leads to a strong bond in that one is convinced of gaining or getting good resources.

e) Innovation skills

Innovation means introducing and creating new important ideas and issues related to life. This can help in mobilizing resources when people with such skills are able to think critical and solve difficult problems experienced by human beings. Innovation skills help one to build new things to create and develop new ideas with others. Collaboration is very essential because different organizations brings their thoughts together and end up with something meaningful which will help others and the community in general. The reason these skills of creativity, communication and critical thinking is becoming important is because of the changing nature of the work and the rapid pace at which change is spreading. For example the technology of computers has spread like bush fire and everyone is enjoying the resources. Incase more new innovations can come up then life will be easier as compared to the olden days.

Finance and accounting may be associated with normal routines systems but that does not mean that innovation in new resources has changed much.

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