MODELLING simulated problems. Meanwhile in 1962 a version



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Simulation-can be defined as the emulation of a
process/condition or transition from a mathematical /computer model to a
description of the system behavior based on sets of inputs parameters. Modelling-in
engineering field can be defined as the activity of manufacturing
three-dimensional models.Therefore modelling and simulation can be defined as a
procedure of creating/scrutinizing a digital prototype of a physical model in
order to envisage its performance in the real world.The main purpose of the
latter is to understand under what conditions the real physical proposed
structure could fail.


The puzzling problem behavior of neutrons which was faced by
two great mathematicians,(Stanislaw Ulam &Jon Von Neumann)during world war
II lead to computer simulation.Back then research was based on hit and trial
experimentation where was very complicated 
to analyze and costly at the same time, Jon Von Neumann & Stanislaw
Ulaw suggested use of Roulette wheel technique.The technique helped in knowing
the occurrences of various events based on data collected into which the
probabilities of seperayte Purpose Systems Simulator (GPSS) which was used to
design the system for the FAA to distribute weather information. Answers were
only obtained after six weeks from the simulated problems. Meanwhile in 1962 a
version of SIMSCRIPT was produced by Harry Markowitz and his associates in
order to simulate their inventory problems while at same time J.Buxton and
J.Caski developed CSL(Control and simulation language).In 1964 a workshop on
simulation language was held at Stanford University the main purpose was to
help users get started/provide guidance in use of simulation.In may 1965 there
was discussion of simulation language and application,which in turn led to
another workshop at the University of Pennsylvania in March 1966.One result of
this workshop was the realization that a narrower conference on the uses of
simulation was needed.This lead to establishment of the so called “Organizing
group” joined by different groups.The Organizing group organized the October
1967 conference which was focused  on
application of simulation using GPSS.Second conference was held in December
1968 at hotel Roosevelt in New York which was attended by over hundred
people.Third conference was held in 1969 December in Los Angeles.The fifth
conference(1971) became the first to be titled the Winter Simulation
conference.With the development of SLAMII by Pristsker  and associates in 1983 simulation became a
powerful tool which was used popularly on the IBM PC.It provided 3 different
modelling approaches(network,Discrete event and Continuous & the
flexibility to use any combination of them in a single simulation model.SIMANiV
and CINEMiV were developed and they were the newest in simulation and animation
software by system modelling.Softwares such as EMS version of GPSS known as
minuteman began to emerge in the early 90’s. During 1990, web-based simulation,
fancy animated graphics, simulation-based optimization, Markov-chain Monte
Carlo methods were developed

In 1998 Micro saint version 2.0 software began to stand out
which provided automatic data collection,optimization and new windows
interface.It did not require the ability to write in any pro gramming
laungauge.Todat simulation has advanced to such a stage that the software
enables the user to model,excute and animate any manufacturing system in any
level of detail.this goes to an extend that todays simulating softwares support
a lot of different features.

events were merged in a step by step analysis to predict the
outcome of the whole sequence of events.The technique became a remarkable
success on the neutron problem faced by the two mathematician.This was during
the time whne new technologies were developed for military purposes during
world war II.Computer simulation was not a useful tool in the early 50`s.The
laater took too long to get results and needed too many skilled people which
resulted in cost of personnel time and also results were often often
ambivalent.The main tool which was available was IBM 650 which was presented
the “Gordon Simulator” in 1961.


Modelling and simulation become important in
situations whereby experimental description of system behavior might be
feasible due to inaccessible inputs and outputs.

It is mostly important during the times were
experiments might be too dangerous which puts individual life’s at risk.

Unlike experimental behavior, modelling and
simulation does not be obscured by disturbances.

It helps in understanding how the process would
behave in various condition.


Telecommunications-Karthit V.Nagarajan et al
applied modelling and simulation to a simple simulation framework they called
SIMCTS in order to understand customer satisfaction pattern for telecommunication
service providers.

Military-Modelling and simulation has been in
military for training, acquisition application and is
conducted through the use of virtual constructive and live simulation.

Civil engineering designs and presentations-Can
be applied to construction engineering and management in order to investigate
complex management problems.