Management development should be
interpreted as series of related activities instead of an all-inclusive programme.
The inclusion of the word ‘programme’ to describe the process suggests too much
of a cold approach. It is important to start from an understanding of how
managers learn, as considered below.
This does not imply that some
systematic is not necessary; first, because many managers must operate in
routine situations and must be developed accordingly, and secondly, because
organizations will not continue to thrive if they simply react to events.
But it does also not mean that some
systematisation is not needed as many managers work in routine situation and
must develop accordingly. Secondly organisations will have hard time to develop
if they constantly react to every event.
Thoughtful consideration must be
given to approaches that can be used to assess existing managerial resources
and to develop managers to meet the need of the organisation.
Plans must be drawn for the
development of these resources by opting for the best method available.
Although this should not be considered as a ‘programme’ composed of complete,
highly integrated, and strictly applied range of management training and
development techniques. The management development activities needed are
subject to the organisation’s technology, environment, and its philosophy. A
traditional bureaucratic mechanistic type of organization may be inclined to
adopt the programmed routine approach, complete with a wide range of courses,
inventories, replacement charts, career plans and results-orientated review
An old-style bureaucratic systematic
type of organisation may opt for the programmed routine approach. With many
courses, inventories, replacement charts, career plans and results-orientated
In contrast an innovative and
organic type of organisation may justifiably get rid of all these mechanisms.
Its method would be to offer its managers with the chances, challenges,
and guidance they need. Taking this opportunity to give people extra
responsibilities, and ensuring that they receive the coaching and encouragement
Although there would not be any
replacement charts, inventories, or formal appraisal schemes, but employees
would be aware of what their objectives and how to achieve them. In this type
of organic and learning organisation, the role of formal training is reduced
and is much less than the old-style organisation.
As Hirsh and Carter (2002)
emphasize: managers still need to learn and management training needs to be
delivered in more flexible and be incorporated in the busy lives of managers.
The development of interpersonal and leadership skills is a high priority and
not easily achieved through conventional formal training.