Lesson Training directly affects different things.(ADAMU 2008)

Lesson
discusses training and development concepts and definition. Our topic belongs
to the training and development which play very important role in
organizational development specially in under developed organization, the training
helps to enhance skills, abilities and increase motivation level, remove communication
gap and help to work in groups and increase confidence which are very important
in any organization to people work openly and share their new ideas to develop
new innovations.

Concepts and Definition

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The
basic concept of training and development is enhance abilities and skills of
new and current employees and changing attitude of employee towards work and
guide their core objectives and basic aim of the organization,

Training itself is
learning, training without learning is worthless

‘Training is an
attempt or procedure to improve new and current employee performance and their
attitude towards work and organization betterment’

 Training, education, learning and development
both belong to the same sector and directly affect organization profit, if organizations
have good employees honest and skill full that’s actual assets of any
organization

Training and
development = standard performance of an employee – actual performance of an
employee (Dessler 2008)

Through this
criteria we calculate employee performance where the employee stands in the
organization and through this calculate training need analysis which employee
need training and which type of training is required for staff, training
provide to way benefit it provide benefit to employee to enhance their skill
set, knowledge, abilities and education and learning and apply these all in
organization development after this employee have more knowledge and have new
idea for innovation and do something different for the organization.(Olaniyan
and OJo,2008)

Meaning of Training

Meaning
of the training is very wide training is actually the part of human resource
department of the organization it also said that right hand of the
organization, meaning of the training is something learning in organization
through different step which are requirement of the organization, training is a
virtual and very important part of the human resource department because it is
directly affect the entire organization main asset which are human capital, if
your employees are well trained in their work environment that’s a good thing
of any organization Training directly affects different things.(ADAMU 2008)

•     
It
reduce cost

•     
Trained
employee to save organization before loses.

•     
 Training is an integral part of the
organization.

•     
Increase
knowledge , skills , motivation level

•     
Individual
analysis

•     
Group
analysis

Training help to
polish skills and guide new employee before steps, some organization provide
on-job trainings, some organization provide off-job trainings, in the time of
training it is very costly for the organization but after training employee
back to the work it increase employee skills motivation and increase level of
motivation (Mathis and Jackson 2004).

Training is the
well organized and systematic process which is uses to guide and provide
relevant information to employees for betterment of the organization ,training
help to reduce conflicts  and guide what
to do and what should to do or the organization.

Training is the key
element in human resource department it’s also called Human Capital Development
and Learning and Development (ADAMU 2008).

Organization need for training and
development

            Organization
needs towards training and development is employee learning because employee
direct assets of the any organization training provide to employees is one big
reason is check employee performance and their requirement, it helps to check
required performance of an individual employee and the group of people and
their current performance, it helps to check the gap between both their
performances (Asare-Bediako 2008)

They have different
stages which are required in training and development in any organization

•     
Training
assessment

                        Training
assessment is employee need training or not , those employees which are attend
training they need or not , its relevant for his work or not these things check
and asses in training assessment or it also check this training or topic is
understand able or not .

•     
Training
plan development

o   Training plan is very important training is a
thing which is right time right thing place for a right person training provide
those who have needed, training itself a learning process

•     
Develop
training material

Training material
is very important booklets which provide by trainers are relevant and full
information in it for employees. Included activities material and something
different in it

Training itself is
very important thing it helps to move for innovation and develop something new
and better for the organization (Cmmlab 2013).

Aims and objective of training

Aims
and objective of training is provide proper guide line to employees to perform
their jobs effectively and focus on their objectives to perform their task
bitterly, they are help to focus on the mess of population not only a single
person, training and development help to human resources department to sure and
make strategies in organization according to the survey of training need
analysis,

It also help to
skills set of employees and their types and how its work

There are two types
of skills.

•     
Soft skills

•     
Herd
skills

Training have a big
drawback it don’t focus on leadership and talent development, organization have
to make diverse teams which have all type of employees some are more efficient
, some are less and make a wonderful team work , and set objective and goals
for individual and team work and given different type of targets and task to
perform  their job. (Holden 2001)

Training need identification

Training
need identification is a very important step in training process it include
many things today’s employee and organization thinking change towards work,
employee think independently for make new innovation and develop new ideas its
make organization different to others for betterment

Training need
identification helps to evaluate employee performance and check employee
performance gap new and current both of employees

It helps to check
following needs of training

•     
Immediate
training need

•     
Long
range training need

This training needs
use for identification training need and requirement

It has many stages
to evaluate training needs where training is required or not and their benefits
and which type of population attend trainings

Training cycle
helps to understand training need identification

•     
Identify
the learning process

•     
Design
the training material

•     
Delivering
the training

•     
Evaluate
the training

These for step is
very important in training cycle and its very help to evaluate training gap,
training need identification also show training 

•     
Training
requirement

•     
Current
knowledge and skills

•     
Required
knowledge

•     
Cost of
trading           

These are four
steps to evaluate training need identification and their requirement and its
delivering cost training is very important in any organization and play
important role to trained employees (Monappa & Saiyadain 2008)

Training need Analysis

Training
need analysis is actually is a gap between employees training and training gap
it’s also called (TNA) it has many types of training need analysis which are
very helpful to trained stuff and it is help to evaluate before and after
employee performance and their requirement and what type of training is
required for the new employees and what type of requirement is need for
experience stuff, (DESSLER 2008)

Types of training need are the following

•     
Organization
analysis

•      Individual analysis

•      Task analysis

•      Performance analysis

•      Suitability analysis

•      Cost analysis

•     
Benefits
analysis

These are the types of training need analysis which we are use to
evaluate employee skills and abilities and their requirements, some
requirements are very important which employee must have on it to perform their
job well 

•     
Decision
making

•      Leadership

•      Coaching

•      communication

•      Team work

•      Complete knowledge of entire organization and
their comparatives

•      Highly qualified

•      Team and group work

•      Bundle of knowledge and skills                                                                                                        

•      Smart working

•      Cost caring

•     
Interpersonal
Skills

         Above some points are
very important to employee have to perform their job battery, and a thing is
very important organization tell all the employee about the current and
demanded position and the profit of the organization it’s develop a trust
between employee and the organization (Ivancevich 2010)

Training polices

Training
polices is very important part in training department there are many type of
trainings some on-job training and off-job training some things are very
important and direct effect training polices and employee who are attend
training that is following

•     
Traveling

Those
employees who are come from other cities to attend training organization have
to pay traveling allowances and dinner allowances

•     
Future
needs

Training
polices are not work just present situation and needs it also work for future
demands and well aware future trends of a company and social environment of the
country

•     
Goals
of training  

Goal
of training is very important thing in training department goals needs
requirement are clear for trainee and trainers for both to get maximum profit
in minimum time (Armstrong & Stephens 2005)

•     
Policies
and procedures

•     
Introduction

•     
Importance
of training

•     
Structure
of procedure

•     
Needs
and requirements

•      Identification

These
things are very important in training polices 

Ø  External and internal training

External
training and internal training both are very important in some organization
three training in a year is mandatory for each employee, some organization
provide off job training to enhance skills and abilities of employees it also
called in-house and out house job training

 

•     
Training
strategies

Training strategies is very important thing
in organization development it is vital of success of the company, it given
your company a competitive advantage to attain and sustain position in the word
of challenges training polices are made by high management

 

•     
Team
building

Team building is a
very important thing to achieve a goal and profits with a group of people with
different skill set and knowledge, and it provide structure and different ideas
to attain or sustain success those organization definitely get success who are
work in teams and group

 

•      Mentoring

Mentoring is also called adviser which trained employee
according to the organization need and requirements and tell how to get and
achieve profit and better position and success in the company

Training
polices is very important thing which guide and entertain employees and
mentoring according to need of organization, and polices made by the according
to the needs requirement and cost and benefits of the organization (Mullins
2007)

Training methods

Training
is a method is a process is a way to trainee employee according to the need and
requirement of the organization it pass through many different stages, phases
and steps, there are some following phases of training methods 

•     
Training
need analysis

•     
Development

•     
Procedures

•     
Design

•     
Implementation

•     
Evaluation

These are some phases
of training method which are use to guide and trainee employees. And there is
some method of training

•      Methods

•     
On-job
training

•     
Off-job
training

•     
Job
rotation

•       Job
mentoring

These
are some method of training which are use to provide training new and current
employee of the organization (Dessler 2008)

There are some
advantages of training methods 

•     
It is
cost effective

•     
Employee
are well known about company profile

•     
Training
method increase motivation , enhance skills

•     
Increase
communication

•     
Group
and team work

These
are some points which very helpful in organization structure and enhance
employee skills and reduce turnover rate  

 Interactive methods are also a kind of
training method interactive method includes the following things.

•     
Quizzes

•     
Team discussion

•     
Case
studies

•     
Q&
A session

•     
Playing
roles

•     
Activities

•     
Group
discussions

These
things help to trainee employees

•      Hands on training

•      Computer base training (CBT)

This is also a part
of training which use is in different sector of the organization (Ivancevich
2010)

Training Techniques

Training
techniques are very important in training sessions it check which method is
more numerous in session which material is good for the relevant topic it can
help to determine which type of method should be use and good for learning it
help to insure and evaluate all the member which are setting in training
section all are taken same information and all member are fully satisfy by
learning process and material and training methods, 

·        
Advantages

•     
Develop
new ideas

•     
All
people which are attend training session are get equal knowledge

•     
It help
to evaluate employee own capabilities where employee are lies in organization
structure

•     
Different
session help to gain and attain different type of new knowledge, brain storming
help to introduce new things (Asare-Bediako 2008 ).

They
have some interactive method which helps to attain more knowledge

•     
Quizzes

•     
Small
group discussion

•     
Case
studies

•     
Active
summaries

•     
Q &
A  session

•     
Question
cards

•     
Role-playing

•     
Participant
control

•     
Demonstration

•     
Other
activities

These
things are count in training techniques or we also called it learning
techniques or procedure, training has many other techniques

•     
Hand on
technique

It
help to trained employee bitterly hands on training is very effective technique
to trained employees it includes

•     
Cross
training 

•     
Demonstration

•     
Coaching

•     
Apprenticeship

•      Drill

These
are count in hand on training techniques which are help to trained new and
current employees of the organization (DESSLER 2008).

Benefits of Training

Training
is very important tool in organization at any time period training is a process
of learning which helps to enhance skills knowledge behavior towards work, and
helps to change attitude and guide employee according to the social and moral
impact in the society 

Some specific
benefits of training

•     
Increase
job satisfaction

•     
One or
more people trained for the specific job

•     
Help to
reduce turnover rate

•     
Trained
employee diversity

•     
Increase
innovation

•     
Develop
new ideas

•     
Share
ideas

•     
Produce
new strategies

•     
Trainee
employee about company main cores and objectives

•     
Train
employee about organization needs threads’ 
strength and weakness (Mullins 2007).

Training
play very important role in the organization it not only important for new
employees its very important for current employees also some organization has
rule to attend mandatory  three training
in a year(Cole 2004).

Training need analysis process

o   The Training need analysis is a process or a
way to check your training is targeted or effective or fulfill of organization
demands it also called (TNA), it has five steps in his process without these
five steps training is incomplete , his steps are given below

·        
Steps

•     
Draw
TNA in a context

•     
Knowledge
, skills behavior required

•     
Individual
and group role of employees

•     
 Assess current skills knowledge

•      Collect the data  (Monappa & Saiyadain 2008)

These are five
major steps of training need analysis process,

One
big thing in this cost benefit analysis, in this thing organization work so
hard because of financial risk is involve in it, some major or minor factor
directly affect organization cost which are following below

Cost affects

•     
Provide
training on time

•     
Try to
provide in-house training

•     
Develop
company own training department

•     
Provide
on-job and off-job both type of training

•     
Content
of training is very effective and easy in words

•     
Employee
skills development workshops

•     
Right
training to right person on right time 

Training process is
very important thing in training need analysis it has five main steps which includes
in training process

•     
Strategies

•     
Design

•     
Launch

•     
New
action

•     
Measure

These
steps are use in training process, and training without this process is
incomplete it help to evaluate employs performance as well as organization
performance, and it help in effective training process Training is very
important thing in any organization level or. It helps to evaluate employer
performance enhance their skills, abilities, knowledge and motivation level,
training itself is very important thing and reduce turnover rate and employee
stability (DESSLER 2008).

Standard operating procedure (sop’s) of
training and development in pharmaceutical company 

In
pharmaceutical industry it’s very important to guide and provide new and
updated knowledge of product in right time and it is very necessary for all
employees it’s only possible through training and development programs
sometimes it is in-house training and sometimes organization concern with
external factor in external factors organization concern to other trained people
to guide and train new employees. Sops are use to attain or maintain quality
insurance and maintains their standard it has many benefits of sops it helps to
evaluate employee performance and company standards and it’s also help to
evaluate their weakness'(IOSR journal  of
pharmacy senior chemist Albert David in 2015).

Procedure of standard operating procedures
(SOPS)  

Benefits
of sops are very wide range it provide a secure and save way to

Improve
organization structure and growth and provide better way for organization
development and it shell be linked with the performance year of employees.

•     
Employee
performance should lead as individual and group also

o   Its provide guide line as well rules line to
employees does not matter employee are new or old employee

•     
Individual
person performance also evaluate through company performance and through
succession planning (dessler 2008).

 Training Need Analysis

Training
need analysis actually is a process to evaluate the gap between employee’s
current training and need requirement of training, in this we evaluate the gap
of knowledge , skills abilities, motivation level , competence’s which required
to meet organization objectives, through this analysis we evaluate the gap of
knowledge which have defiance in our employees in organization  .

 

Proposal of training  

Proposal
of training are different for different organization, before starting training
programs we have to plain about training, its material, training type, a good
plan with clear objectives and expected results is useful in building support
of employees and board of directors also, there is a level of planning and
pyramid which help to understand strategic planning and their target audience