Jojoba improvement, and anti-rust, anti-foam, anti-wear and

Jojoba oil can
be used in manufacturing varnishes, inks, waxes, detergents, resins and
plastics. It is used as a potential low-calorie edible oil and coating material
for fruits and pills (283). Jojoba oil, as
a component in lubricating oil formulations, can enhance or impart certain
desirable characteristics such as viscosity index improvement, and anti-rust, anti-foam,
anti-wear and friction reduction properties to the blend (285).

Jojoba oil also
may be useful in the manufacture of many products such as cosmetics (soaps, shampoos, skin cream,
antisolar oils), carbon paper, stencil and pharmaceuticals. The oil has a high dielectric
strength. This is an indication that the jojoba oil has the ability to resist
electrical breakdown. This property makes it suitable for electrical
applications. It may prove valuable in the manufacture of detergents, wetting
agents, dibasic acids, long chain ethers, hydroxyl ethers and sulfated products

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

Waxes are not polar at ?40°C and
are lipophilic, but obtain a crystalline state with some slight hydrophilic
characteristics at temperatures under 40°C (276). Waxes tend to
crystallize and cause turbidity when the oil is cooled which interfers with oil
processing and marketing. They are partially removed during refining in the winterization
or dewaxing processes (277), which is
generally employed to produce liquid oils that resist clouding at cool
temperature, making them acceptable aesthetically, and to avoid high oil losses
during refining (286). Dewaxing is a
special process, which is of interest for certain types of oils such as
sunflower, canola, corn and rice bran oil (286). Dewaxing step
can be done after bleaching and befor deodorization steps.

In the conventional dewaxing
process, the oil is heated to around 90?C to destroy any existing crystal
nuclei. The oil is then cooled with stirring to around 20?C and then allowed to
mature for a minimum time of 4 h. Wax is separated by filtration in plate and
frame filters. Dewaxed oil for example cottonseed oil is likely to become
cloudy in a severe winter or in cold places (278). The wax
separated by winterisation contains not only wax esters, but also other lipid
species. Therefore, to obtain purer forms of wax esters, defatting or washing with
organic solvents is necessary, which is called solvent fractionation (279).