Ivan This paper discusses the possibility of

Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning Theory Name Mingma Sherpa Professor Priyanka Handa Course Psychology Date 8/10/18 Abstract Ivan Pavlov was a major contributor to Psychology. He was able to prove that classical conditioning can apply towards animals. Association has a lot of influence on decision making. The theory breaks complex behaviors into small units which are stimulus and response units. This paper discusses the possibility of a scientific test of the small units with examples. The theory explains behaviorism. Ivan Pavlov was born in 1849 and died in 1936. He was a Russian scientist (Anokhin, 2016). As a scientist, he made effort to understand the digestion process in mammals. His samples were dogs and he focused on what made them start salivating when time to eat reached. He thought that the presence of food made dogs start drooling but he found that there was more to learn than he expected. The theory is applicable to dental care services. For example, a patient can experience anxiety when they sit on the dentists chair to get their tooth removed. The anxiety can result from the environment instead of the pain and noise the patient expects from the drilling. Even a patient receiving undergoing a tooth check-up will experience anxiety if they have ever experienced dental pain caused by the dentists such as when drilling a tooth. Conditioning is a state where items such as an environment where dentist center is located, equipment used by dentists, and the name of dentist center activate anxiety because of the pain felt when a person visited the dentist even when there is no tooth care activity involved (Moore, 2012). Ivan Pavlov theory illustrates the anxiety that develops in humans or animals because of association. Classical conditioning has become one of the theories used in psychology. It is has had a significant influence on the development of behaviorism field in psychology. Behaviorism is based on assumption that environment influences behavior and learning happens when one interacts with the environment (Pavlov, 2010). The main point about classical conditioning is involved in introducing a neutral signal prior to a reflex that occurs naturally. In Pavlovs experiment, the neural signal was the bell sound. Dogs salivation in response to food is the natural reflex. The sound made by the bell indicating it is time for the dogs to eat (environmental stimulus) made dogs salivate. The theory of classical conditioning can be applied to many situations such as visual stimuli, gustatory stimulus, an auditory stimulus, and multisensory stimuli (Yang, et al, 2014). The conditioning in all the situations is distributed in a normal way among different individuals who are exposed to the same conditions (Yang, et al, 2014). Humans can detect any threatening stimuli faster than any other stimuli (LoBue, et al, 2016). Therefore, it is easier to learn to respond to threatening stimuli faster than one can learn about other things such as food. Research has proven that young children can identify and respond to threats such as spiders, angry faces, frogs, and snakes faster other control stimuli (LoBue, et al, 2016). Classical habituation functions when there are two stimuli which evoke a response after learning. Classical habituation process involves three stages. First stage Before Conditioning This is the first stage of classical conditioning. It requires a stimulus that occurs naturally which has the potential to stimulate responses. An example is when a person salivates because there is a smell of a delicious meal around them. Classical habituation is a process. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) brings out an unconditioned response (UCR) (Gershman, and NIV, 2012). In the example about food smell eliciting salivation, the food is classified as the unconditioned stimulus while the salivation response makes up the unconditioned response. A neutral stimulus can only trigger a response after it gets attached to an unconditional stimulus. The unconditional stimulus naturally, unconditionally and automatically evokes a response. There are high chances that when a person smells their favorite food they will feel hungry. The smell of ones favorite meal makes the unconditioned stimulus. Unconditioned response represents an unlearned response which results from an unconditioned stimulus. The unconditioned response represents the unlearned response which naturally acts to help the body respond to unconditioned stimulus. In the example, above about food and hunger, feeling hungry because of smelling food represents the unconditional response. The first stage where learning happens and the first response is established is known as an acquisition. After the response is established it becomes stronger gradually. The acquisition period involves the continuous pairing of an unconditional stimulus with a neutral stimulus. The unconditioned response can naturally evoke a response even when there is no learning involved. Second Stage During Conditioning The neutral stimulus forms an association with an unconditioned stimulus. The association results from the pairing of the unconditioned stimulus and the neutral stimulus (Moore, 2012). After the association, the neutral stimulus changes and becomes a conditioned stimulus. The association conditions the neutral stimulus and it can respond to stimulus. After the previously neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an unconditioned stimulus, it develops the ability to trigger responses (conditioned response). Using the example about food and smell, if the smell is consistently accompanied by sound from a whistle, when you hear the sound and there is no smell, there are high chances that you will remember the smell. Whistling has no relation to the smell of the meal it has the potential to trigger a conditioned response. Therefore, the whistle sound is a conditioned stimulus. When an association takes place, the animal involved will show a learned behavior as it responds to the conditioned stimulus which was previously neutral stimulus. When the above happens, the subject can be said to have acquired a response. The response is strengthened or reinforced after it is established (Anokhin, 2016). The reinforcement makes sure the subject learns the behavior well. Third stage After Conditioning After the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus form an association, the conditioned stimulus does not require the unconditioned stimulus to evoke any response (Moore, 2012). It can trigger response on its own (Rescorla, 2014). The response evokes a conditioned response (Rescorla, 2014). The conditioned response becomes a learned response to the stimulus that was neutral before the association with an unconditioned stimulus. For example, when you are away from a dentist hospital and you hear a noise that you heard while sitting on dentists chair during a tooth drilling, you will experience anxiety or fear because of the pain you felt during tooth care session. Learned responses can reemerge after staying for a long time without appearing (Moore, 2012). The process is known as spontaneous recovery. Conditioned responses reemerge after lessened response or extinction for a season. The spontaneous recovery depends on the strength of association between unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus (Rescorla, 2014). If the association is weak, the response will become extinct within a short time and it will last longer if the association is stronger. There comes a time when the conditioned responses disappear or decrease and this is known as extinction (Moore, 2012). Extinction occurs when the association between the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus ends. An example is when a whistling sound fails to make a person remember about their favorite meal. In conclusion, classical conditioning theory has made a significant contribution to psychology. It helps in explanation of behaviors that result from the association. These behaviors result from the environment and exposure. Per John Watson who further developed the classical conditioning theory, every response that humans show such as emotional and speech responses are because of stimulus as opposed to consciousness. Classical conditioning theory states that all behaviors are learned through association of stimuli. The unconditioned response comes from an unconditioned stimulus. Then there is a neutral stimulus which has no influence unless it forms an association with an unconditioned stimulus. A response is evoked when the unconditioned stimulus forms an association with a conditioned stimulus. References Anokhin, P. K. (2016). Biology and Neurophysiology of the Conditioned Reflex and Its Role in Adaptive Behavior International Series of Monographs in Cerebrovisceral and Behavioral Physiology and Conditioned Reflexes (Vol. 3). Elsevier. Gershman, S. J., NIV, Y. (2012). Exploring a latent cause theory of classical conditioning. Learning Behavior, 40(3), 255-268.retrieved from https//link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13420-012-0080-8 Moore, J. W. (Ed.). (2012). A neuroscientists guide to classical conditioning. Springer Science Business Media. Rescorla, R. A. (2014). Pavlovian Second-Order Conditioning (Psychology Revivals) Studies in Associative Learning. Psychology Press. Pavlov, P. I. (2010). Conditioned reflexes an investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex. Annals of Neurosciences, 17(3), 136. Retrieved from https//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4116985/ Rescorla, R. A (2014). Pavlovian second order conditioning (Psychology Revivals) Studies in Associative Learning. Psychology press. PAGE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY Running head CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY PAGE 1 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY Y, I-iii3JPO-fWZO0,_p7
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