Introduction:In the Poetics, Aristotle’s famous study of Greek dramatic art, Aristotle describes tragedy as the greatest form of poetry and defines tragedy as imitation of an action that is serious and also, as havingmagnitude, complete in itself. Aristotle shows that all tragic plays must have one crucial issue that contains great importance and that the play must not deflect from that issue. Aristotle explains that tragedy arouses pity and fear through the alteration of a central character so as to allow the audience to identify with this character. Also, tragedy brings about catharsis for the audience as the play purges the audience of these emotions to cleanse and uplift the public with a greater understanding of the ways of the world. A tragedy involves an Aristotelian tragic hero with a tragic flaw, which is when in exchange for the loss of social prestige and power, the tragic hero, through mental and/or physical suffering, receives some special insight into human nature in general and about his/her character in particular. Shakespeare and Fitzgerald exist today as two of the greatest authors of all time due to their books Macbeth and The Great Gatsby, respectively. Macbeth follows the story of Macbeth, a general in the Scottish army, as he achieves his dream of obtaining the throne albeit through sinful and evil actions. The Great Gatsby shows the life of Jay Gatsby, a man, of new money, consumed by the modern myth of the American dream and his own personal dream of marrying the woman he loves. Body paragraph 1Macbeth and Gatsby both embody the definition of a tragic hero as they face adversity and confront downfall due to their crucial character flaws, such as a lack of balance between passion and reason and naive idealism,and also evoke feelings of pity and anxiety in the audience. Shakespeare and Fitzgerald show that their characters face hardship due to the reason that Macbeth and Gatsby cannot control their passion to fulfill their dreams. Macbeth shows the absence of a reasoning ability as he contemplates his reasoning to kill King Duncan to become King of Scotland himself. Macbeth’s passion to achieve the throne engulfs his ability to carefully think through his actions and realize that he performs evil actions that do not apply to his once noble character. Macbeth states five reasons as to why he should not kill the king but states only one reason as to why he should kill the king as Macbeth is the king’s kinsman and his subject, Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, Who should against his murderer shut the door, Not bear the knife myself. Besides, this Duncan Hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been So clear in his great office, that his virtues Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongued, against The deep damnation of his taking-off.” (I.vii.13-20)Macbeth allows his passion to take control of his actions which results in the death of King Duncan. Although Macbeth’s hamartia grants him the throne, ultimately, Macbeth’s actions lead to mental suffering and downfall for him and for those around him. Through this quote, Shakespeare shows the audience that keeping a balance between passion and reason keeps one noble and just whereas a lack of balance can cause animosity and malevolence within oneself. Gatsby also portrays a tragic hero as his immortal passion for Daisy overwhelms his reasoning ability and causes him to forget his true dream of becoming successful through hard work. Daisy comes from old money and because Gatsby comes from no money, he decides to earn money through the illegal job of bootlegging which allows him to throw extravagant parties to attract Daisy. Although Gatsby believes that his passion have a logical purpose, in actuality, his passion leads him to suffer. Gatsby shows his passion for Daisy as he “stretched out his arms toward the dark water in a curious way, and far as I was from him I could have sworn he was trembling. Involuntarily I glanced seaward–and distinguished nothing except a single green light, minute and far away, that might have been the end of a dock” (Gatsby 25). This quote shows that Gatsby clings to the hope that Daisy will come back to him and they will live together as lovers. The green light symbolizes Gatsby’s desire for Daisy and signifies how close Gatsby is to achieve his desire. Fitzgerald shows that when passion overtakes one’s logical thinking, one can do many unthinkable actions to satisfy that passion. During his youth, Gatsby wants to improve his mind and physical strength through hard work and determination but when he meets Daisy, he uses corrupt ways to gain money. This corruption perverts Gatsby’s morals and social values and shows that the American dream of happiness and individualism is reduced to an empty concept that does not reward conviction and courage but instead becomes a pursuit for wealth. Macbeth and Gatsby possess a second tragic flaw of naive idealism as their dreams are very optimistic and positive but are not realistic or thought out. Macbeth’s dream of becoming King of Scotland is not reasonable as Macbeth strongly believes in his religion which dictates about the Divine Right of Kings. The Divine Right of Kings edicts that God chooses people such as royalty or thanes to represent God on Earth and to keep order. Shakespeare says that if one was born into a particular class or socioeconomic status, one remains in that rank until death as this was God’s will. Macbeth knows that he does not embody the role of king but only that of a thane. Even still, Macbeth chooses to disrupt nature and kill King Duncan to achieve his dream without any care for the consequences. Macbeth furthur defies the Divine Right of Kings as he also wants to kill “The Prince of Cumberland! that is a step / on which I must fall down” (I.iv.55-56). Macbeth’s desire to accomplish his impractical and quixotic dreams set him on a path of destruction as he thinks that he can kill the previous King of Scotland and become the king himself without any repercussions or consequences. Shakespeare tells society to set sensible and practical goals so as to keep one’s self from focusing on unattainable dreams. Macbeth displays naivete as he believes that everyone will continue to love him even after he commits heinous crimes such as killing King Duncan and Banquo. Gatsby also suffers from naive idealism as he pretends that Daisy, a member of Old Money, will marry someone of his report as he has no money. When Gatsby realizes the socioeconomic difference between Daisy and himself, he turns to crime to make money in order to belong to the same rich crowd as Daisy. However, the fact that he does not understand that Old Money does not associate with New Money shows Gatsby’s ignorance to the different social rankings of the Western world. Gatsby endures much hard work, with his criminal business, to create an image of himself that does not portray an accurate representation of his true self that is outlined by the schedule that Gatsby’s dad shows Nick. Gatsby displays furthur gullibility when Nick asks “‘Was Daisy driving?’ ‘Yes,’ he (Gatsby) said after a moment, ‘but of course I’ll say I was'” (Gatsby 137). Gatsby’s willingness to take the responsibility for the death of Myrtle displays his naive nature as he still believes that this act will bring Daisy to his side. Gatsby displays a lack of transparency, with matters about love, which furthur shows the audience of Gatsby’s naive desires to attain his unattainable dream. Gatsby’s foolish nature makes him believe that Daisy, who lives a materialistic life, would leave her comfortable marriage to marry someone of New Money. Gatsby’s dream consumes his life which does not allow him to gain his true dream of success, through noble and honourable methods, which leads to a life of corruption and sadness. Macbeth and Gatsby personify idealists, who believe so desperately in their impractical dreams that they cannot carefully analyze the predicaments which leads to downfall. Shakespeare and Fitzgerald show how naive idealism dominates one’s life and ruins one’s future through the actions of Macbeth and Gatsby, respectively. Both authors tell society to stray away from unrealistic and highly optimistic dreams that are hopeless and infeasible. Macbeth and Gatsby’s tragic flaws, including a lack of balance between passion and reason and naive idealism, make them tragic heros as their stories awaken feelings, of empathy and concern, from the audience. Body Paragraph 2: Due to their tragic flaws, Macbeth and Gatsby mentally suffer from the repercussions and the consequences of their actions. Macbeth suffers from mental pain in the form of an internal conflict as he shows a psychological struggle within his mind when deciding whether to kill King Duncan or not. Macbeth shares, with the audience, four reasons as to why he should not kill King Duncan but states only one reason as to why he should. Macbeth’s ambition to become King of Scotland causes him to ignore his reasoning ability and continue to plan regicide. Although Macbeth loves King Duncan and does not want to kill King Duncan, Macbeth still harbours ambitions of ruling Scotland which cloud his judgement. Macbeth’s conscience and innocence, which disappears further on in the play, opposes his ambitious desires of power. Macbeth shows that he has “no spur / to prick the sides of my intent, but only / vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself / and falls on the other” (I.vii.25-28). Macbeth feels uncomfortable and miserable about regicide as he explains that his only reason to kill King Duncan is his unchecked ambition which keeps Macbeth from disregarding the idea of regicide altogether. Macbeth’s tragic flaw of a lack of balance between passion and reason causes him to suffer greatly. Shakespeare shows the audience that Macbeth undergoes mental agony and anguish to help the audience identify with Macbeth as suffering is universal. The audience feels the same emotions as Macbeth and the audience understands that even those of greater socioeconomic rank experience misery and mental pain. Gatsby also faces mental suffering and adversity on the path to fulfill his ambitious dreams of marrying Daisy. As Gatsby possesses naive idealism, he believes that he and Daisy can marry and love each other just as they did in 1917. However, this character flaw makes Gatsby believe in fantastical and unrealistic goals that Gatsby cannot achieve. Gatsby pursues the impractical goal of winning Daisy and consumes himself with mental suffering as his goal slowly eludes his grasp. As Gatsby tries to become rich to be with Daisy, Daisy unknowingly drifts further and further from him as he tries to grow closer to her. Gatsby’s character flaw stops him from achieving his once righteous and honourable dream of becoming successful through hard work, determination, and through noble means. When Gatsby ascertains that Daisy “married Tom Buchanan of Chicago with more pomp and circumstance than Louisville ever knew before” (Gatsby 74), mental suffering begins to consume Gatsby. Gatsby prolongs his emotional pain as he continues to try to win Daisy, from Tom, without realizing that Gatsby and Daisy cannot be together due to a plethora of reasons. Daisy is unworthy of Gatsby’s love and she ruins Gatsby’s American dream as she does not wait for him much like how the American Dream of success is ruined by the corrupted minds of the greedy. Gatsby feels the pain of denial as he was so invested in Daisy. Had Gatsby not devoted years of his life to achieve Daisy, he would have suffered less when Daisy leaves him to marry Tom. Fitzgerald shows that tragic flaws can cause immense emotional suffering, for those that blindly follow their ambitions, through the actions of Gatsby. Moreover, Macbeth suffers, psychologically, in the form of a mental disorder, from schizophrenia. Schizophrenia affects the ways a person thinks, behaves, and acts as people may lose touch with reality and can even cause hallucinations in the form of visions or voices. Macbeth’s crucial character flaw of a lack of balance between passion and reason causes this schizophrenia as he continues to have internal conflicts which weigh heavily upon his mind. These internal conflicts cause him to exhibit abnormal social behaviour as he thinks about regicide as a method to become King of Scotland. Macbeth also shows signs of poor judgement and thinks that his ambitious dreams can be achieved. Symptoms of schizophrenia include detachment from reality and Macbeth clearly displays this symptom as Macbeth hallucinates, before the death of King Duncan, as he asks “Is this a dagger which I see before me,The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee.I have thee not, and yet I see thee still.Art thou not, fatal vision, sensibleTo feeling as to sight? or art thou butA dagger of the mind, a false creation,Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain.” (II.i.40-46)In this quote, Shakespeare shows how Macbeth’s tragic flaw leads to the feeling of strain on Macbeth’s mind and how this mental affliction causes Macbeth to hallucinate and kill King Duncan. Some schizophrenics withdraw, from life, emotionally as they begin to feel no emotions regarding their actions. Macbeth displays this symptom as he shows no regard for killing his best friend, Banquo. Shakespeare shows the immense struggle that one faces due to the repercussions of her/his actions led by his/her idealistic and excessively ambitious dreams.