Introduction are used in ayurveda for treatment of diabetes

Introduction

Salacia is a liana which belongs to family Celastraceae subfamily Salacioideae. In India,
Salacia is distributed in Karnataka,
Kerala, Tamil Nadu. Species of Salacia are
used in ayurveda for treatment of diabetes and obesity as polyherbal
preparation or churnas such as Madhujeevan Churna (Salunkhe and
Wachasundar 2009) and Diajith (Rajalakshmy et al.
2014).Root, bark and leaves of Salacia species contains active
ingredients which are anti-diabetic (Yoshikawa et al. 2001), anticancer (Yoshimi et al. 2001), antiviral agent effective against HIV, Herpes simplex
(Guha et al. 1996; Zheng
and Lu 1990). Salacia species contains
active compounds salacinol and kotalanol which have ?-glucosidase inhibitory
activity (Xie et al. 2011).

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Species
identification in the genus Salacia
is difficult when based solely on morphological characteristics. Although most
of the vegetative characters of the species within the genus are same differences
are observed in floral and some fruit characteristics (Udayan et al. 2012;
Udayan et al. 2013). Therefore, accurate methods of validation and
authentication is indispensable to ensure safe use and efficacy of extracted
raw drugs.

RAPD
and ISSR simple and quick techniques which does not require any prior knowledge
DNA sequence of the target organism. RAPD detects nucleotide sequence
polymorphisms, using a single primer of arbitrary nucleotide sequence where as
ISSR detects  polymorphisms in identical
inter-microsatellite loci oriented in opposite direction, using primers which
are di, tri, tetra or penta nucleotide simple sequence repeats (Zietkiewicz et al.
1994). Inter transcribed spacer (ITS) having universal set of primers is a
popular choice for phylogenetic analyses (Alvarez and Wendel
2003).

              In the present study two DNA markers
RAPD and ISSR, and a DNA barcoding region ITS was used to evaluate genetic
diversity within and among four Salacia
species-S. chinensis, S. macrosperma, S.
fruticosa, S. oblonga sampled from Western Ghats of Karnataka.