In GM Soy was introduced to the market

In this article, you will be finding out about how Soybeans are genetically modified (GM) by resisting the chemical glyphosate herbicide. GM soybean is called Roundup Ready GM Soy introduced by Monsanto in 1996. By using the 5 step method called genetic engineering. You also will be finding out how the environment is being affected by the GM soy.The general complication, why composing soy into GM Soy, is the resistance against the glyphosate herbicide.1In 1996 Roundup Ready GM Soy was introduced to the market by Monsanto.2But in 1994 GMO commercial sales were introduced in the market.(3) This seat that was introduced was able to resist the harm of glyphosate herbicide. This meant that the farmers were able to spray the plants with the glyphosate herbicide and kill all the plants except the for the soy. 1 Glyphosate prevents the protein that is located in the plant to further grow. Practically all plants produce the same protein, glyphosate affects virtually all plants. As shown in figure 1 4, there is shown how the plants containing protein and no-protein plants were affected by the glyphosate. To make soybeans resist the glyphosate, a 5 step process was used. 4   The process of turning a non-soybean into a GMO soy is by a 5 step method, which is called the process of genetic engineering. (Shown in the image on the right11) The first step is to extract the DNA from the nucleus of the soybean. The second step of the genetic engineering is gene cloning. During the DNA extraction, all the DNA of the organism was extracted at once. Scientist uses this (Gene cloning) to separate single genes of interest from all the other genes. There will be thousands of copies created of this gene of interest. Then the step gene design will design the gene to work in a variety of different organisms. This is done by cutting the gene apart with enzymes and replacing the regions that have been separated. The fourth step of the genetic engineering is transformation. It is impossible to insert a copy of transgene into every cell. Therefore tissue culture is being used to propagate masses of the callus (undifferentiated plant cells). These are the cells which the new transgene is going to be added to. The new gene that is created will be inserted into some of the cells using various techniques. Such as Agrobacterium. The goal of these techniques is to transport the new gene and deliver them into the nucleus without killing it. The transformed cells are regenerated into transgenic plants. The transgenic plants will be grown to maturity in the greenhouses and the seed that is produced will be collected. The seeds will be transferred to the plant breeder to complete the last step, which is backcross breeding. The final step, backcross breeding, is transgenic plants which are crossed with elite breeding lines using the traditional plant breeding methods. 10 Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which is used to get the genes into the nucleus (step 4 of genetic engineer). It is a bacteria that is gram-negative. It is also widely spread in soil and works(5) as a natural genetic engineer. This bacteria invades plants by the stem or root. Agrobacterium tumefaciens has an extra DNA, which is called Ti plasmid.6  Ti plasmid makes the bacteria able to transduce their material.7  Invaded the plant cell the Ti plasmid will disassemble itself from the bacteria and enters the plant cell chromosomes (location where the protein is created). The genes, located on the plasmid, will activate itself inside the chromosomes. The genes encode enzymes, which forces the plant cell to generate metabolites the bacteria needs for growth. Genetically the Agrobacterium tumefaciens becomes the moderator of this plant cell. This allows the bacteria to multiply until the death of the plant. By the natural abilities of the Agrobacterium, scientist have removed the genes from the Ti plasmid to use in monocot species, such as soy. 6  Over the years since Roundup Ready GM soy has been introduced globally there has been an increase of introduction over the years in the market. In 2009 77% globally were using genetically modified soybeans. There was a 4,9% increase from 2008 – 2009. But in the United States, where Roundup Ready GM Soy was invented, there is 91% of the soy genetically modified in 2009. 1  But there have been many studies, experimenting if Roundup Ready GM soybean is safe or better compared to normal soy. There has been a study done comparing ready-to-market soy and the Roundup Ready GM soy its amount of glyphosate on the soy. The Roundup Ready GM Soy had 0.4-7.7 mg/kg and the ready-to-market had none of any chemicals that were found on the Roundup soy. As shown in the graph on the left8, it shows the number of chemicals found on the various types of Soy. This meant that the Roundup Ready GM Soy had no use of usage as there was no chemicals found on the ready-to-market soy.8 The environment has an effect of GM soy both positively and negatively. As said before the positively of the creation of introducing Roundup Ready Gm Soy is that it kills the plants located around the soybeans. By transferring Agrobacterium tumefaciens into the soybeans to resist the damage that the glyphosate creates. 6  But the negatively affect that the Roundup Ready GM soy has on the environment is the farmers could increase the use of glyphosate on the plants. This will increase the human consumptions to dangerous toxins. In general GM crops can also manufacture their own pesticides, which can put further poisons into humans and soil. This can cause unforeseen changes in the environment. Another negative effect of the GM soy is that the toxins contained can harm other organisms, for example, caterpillars, bees or birds. 9 The usage of using Roundup Ready GM Soy has many benefits but also negative impacts. As the study showed that there was no Glyphosate found on organic soy, there is no use of GM soy. Also the risk of farmers over spraying the plants causing pollution in the soil and air. This all shows that using organic soy is better than GM soy.