Imagining Frontiers was the wilderness just outside the

Imagining and Re-imagining the Community
American Frontiers
The definition of Frontier, generally speaking, is a region at the edge of a settled area.
American frontier began after European settling on the Atlantic coast and the eastern rivers.
The Frontiers was the wilderness just outside the civilized towns. Farming frontier, Trader’s
frontier, Cattle frontier, Urban Frontier, etc. are different kinds of frontiers economic
interest. On the unknown frontier a hardy immigrant could determine his or her own
destiny, while before that time there were no chance for poor people to rise from poverty.
While white people spread westward from the Atlantic coast, the boundary of frontier also
moved farther west. Communities soon developed around frontier’s spots. The process of
settlement of frontier took three hundred years until all the continent was settled. However,
four centuries after the discovery of America, the frontiers had disappeared.
Fredrick Jackson Turner (1861-1932)
He was an American historian who wrote the famous book ”The Significance of Frontier in
American History”, he represented his thesis, Frontier Thesis, in this book which focuses on
the importance and vitality of the frontier in American history and spirit.
James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851)
He was born in New Jersey but he moved to New York with his family. He was a novelist and
he was best known for his Leatherstocking Tales includes: The Pioneers; or, The Sources of
the Susquehanna, The Prairie: A Tale and The Last of The Mohicans, in which he introduces
the character Natty Bumppo. The book was considered as American classics.
Caroline Kirkland (1801-1864)
She was an early American writer and she wrote three books about frontier days on
Michigan frontier. A New Home-Who’ll Follow? And Forest Life and Western Clearings are
among her famous books. She also began writing essays for a variety of magazines such as
Sartain’s Magazine as an editor.
William Apess (1798-1839)
He was an author and political activist of Indian descent whose biographical work A Son of
the Forest was one of the earliest publish writings by a native American. This book is about
his childhood poverty, abuse, his service in War of 1812, his religious conversion and work as
an ordained Methodist minister. Son of the Forest is considered as a political work.
Black Hawk (1767-1838)
He dictated one of the most interesting Indian autobiographies, Life of Ma-Ka-tai-me-she-
kia-kiak, or black Hawk. In the last Indian war of the old Northwest he was a leader as well.
Elias Boudinot (1802-1839)
He was an editor of Cherokee newspaper. He also collaborated in translating parts of New
Testament into Cherokee. He was the editor of the Cherokee Phoenix as well.