I. in shaping business practicesIf well-organized, civil society

I.   Civil society campaigning is a key player in shaping business practicesIf well-organized, civil society campaigning appears to be the most effective way for consumers to promote responsible corporate behaviour, by directly reaching firms but also, indirectly intermediaries of firms. 1.     The more organized, the more effective `Corporate Social Responsibility is best represented a “collective engagement” of civil society actors (May). It is
crucial to recognize the variety of forms members of the civil society take on,
they can be organised and unorganised groups
(World Economic Forum) as this will determine their effectiveness
in promoting sustainable business practices. The civil society literature
distinguishes two major forms of voluntary associations: Social Movements and
NGO’s. Social movements are unorganized   which makes them effective at raising
awareness.  NGO’s: non-profit organisation that have an organized structure and are typicall registered entities. However, social movements fail at gaining support from corporates and society, as their campaigning strategies may come across as extreme and radical (reference). 2.     The diverse strategies of NGO to influence firms directly     Civil society can collectively express a grievance by signing petitions (Corporate social Respoonsible: How Strong). Living in the Golden age of the Internet takes civil society players’ participation to new levels: the e-participation (Sreejith, Transforming Gov). However, these strategies have limited impact on implementing any change in corporate behaviour as we seen for: EXAMPLES However, NGO’s and other groups can also use more effective ways such as direct action as a campaigning tool. (Purdue) If their protests are successful they will be able to create a transformational change. Can truly help citizens to make their disapproval heard. Another strategy used by the civil society is partnering with corporate actors.The figure below illustrates what Jim Wallis means by saying that “Civil society is making other sectors work, leveraging their capabilities and enabling solutions”.  (Jim Wallis, Sojourners National Christian Organization)  Whereas few decades ago, civil society was regarded as an independent and/or opposition force to the corporate world, more and more civil society groups are today involved in partnership with firms.If the degree of interaction between government, corporate world and civil society was quite limited in the past, it seems to have now dramatically increased.  This strategy is very effective to the extent that, on one side, it will allow firms to become more accountable to the public whereas, on the other side, NGO’s will gain more recognition, more financial resources and will become active actors in the decision-making process. In other words, by collaborating directly with them, NGO’s will have the power to significantly influence the long-term sustainability of their business. (Baur and Schmitz)4 For some scholars, abandoning the frontier between profit and non-profit sector even appears like the only way to effectively address social and environmental concerns to firms. (Edwards, 2008)3