Hibiscus (2000) (cited in PURO.K, et al., 2014)

Hibiscus sabdariffa is a perennial herb which is believed to be native to Africa but widely distributed in many countries due to its edibility, high content of vital minerals and nutrients and its medicinal properties. It is common known as “Roselle”. This plant is capable of growing up to 2.0 – 2.5 m tall. (Okereke, Iroka and Chukwuma, 2015) The distinct characteristics of this plant is its bright red and fleshy fruits. The fruits required 6 months in order to reach maturity.The extract of H.sabdariffa shows a lots of pharmacological effects, which includes antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic effect, anti-cholesterol, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and anti-hypertensive effects. (Da-Costa-Rocha et al., 2014) All these effects is believed to be contributed by the content of the extract: anthocyannins, flavonoids, polyphenols, cardiac glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and others. (Okereke, Iroka and Chukwuma, 2015) (PURO.K, et al., 2014) In a work done by Olaleye (2007) (cited in PURO.K, et al., 2014), the methanolic extract extracted from the plant contains cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids exhibits antibacterial property which is effective against a few types of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium sporogenes, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella, pneumoniae. Besides that, it is found that anthocyanins which can be found in the dried calyx of the plant has antioxidant effect and capable of providing liver protection. An study tested by Wang et al. (2000) (cited in PURO.K, et al., 2014) on this antioxidant property using a rat model shows that this pigment is capable of decrease leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and reducing oxidative liver damage.Due to the medicinal properties of H.sabdariffa, this plant is widely cultivated and used as traditional medicine in treating various type of disease. It is believed that the infusions of the leaves is capable of decreasing viscosity of the blood and stimulating intestinal peristalsis. People in India will also use seeds which are considered as diuretic as a supportive medicine for dysuria, dyspepsia and strangury. (Morton, n.d.) In Egypt, this plant is utilized in treating cardiac and nerve diseases and also to favor diuresis, while in North Africa, it is used to relieve sore throats and coughs. People with high blood pressure or liver disorder who receives traditional Chinese medicine treatment will be prescribed product related to this plant (mostly in the form of dried plant). (Da-Costa-Rocha et al., 2014)Currently, medical product related to this plant available in the market is in the form of dietary supplements and is claimed to have the ability to lower blood pressure. Most of the products related to this plant is non-medical products, including tea, lotions, jam and mostly food products, all claimed to contain certain degree of vitamins, minerals and nutrients which brings benefit to human health. It is believed that this plant is suitable for people of all ages. Although it is widely utilized and proven to have many medicinal properties, most of its properties are still under investigations.