GUIDELINES They need to prevent abuse and

Unit 2 Use Legislation relating to the safeguarding, protection and welfare of children
Explain your roles and responsibilities (at least four) in relation to safeguarding, protection and welfare of children in your setting.(1.3 2.1 3.3)
It is very important all Practitioner in the setting have an own roles and responsibilities to provide a safe and secure environment for the children in their care. They need to prevent abuse and respond appropriately to suspected or reported abuse to supervisor or Manager in the setting and maintaining confidential records of the abuse.

Practitioner responsibilities in the setting need to be aware and understand the setting safeguarding policies and procedures. Practitionersare provided adequate and appropriate staffing resources to meet the needs of children in the setting. They need to have an up to date appropriate training. Practitioner required DBS check and certificate in order they can provide duty of care to keep children safe.

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They need to ensure the policy is monitored and reviewed in accordance with any changes in legislation and guidance on the protection of children in the setting at risk.

If a Practitioner in your setting concern other Practitioner is harming and putting a child at risk, she should report this to manager or designated person.Situation is dangerous and illegal, no action is taken, it is necessary to ‘blow the whistle’ and report
the concerns directly to an outside body such as local children’s services, Ofsted or the NSPCC. (Meggitt,2015:43)
Explain how confidentiality impacts on safeguarding, protection and welfare of children(2.2)
Confidentiality is to keep information private and secret. In the early year setting, Practitioner needs to keep all information confidential between them and the parents/carers to enhance the children welfare, ensuring the children is safe and receive the best support they need.Parents/carers need to understand all the information they share is confidential and can be said to have a ‘Confidential relationship’ with the children’s families. In my setting there are record keeping systems in place that meet legal requirements, means of storing and sharing that information take place within the framework of Data Protection Act and the Human Rights Act. Information are kept confidentiality and shared only with those who need to know.

It is important to keep children personal information confidentially to provide a safe and space environment. This is to protect and promote children welfare. Children personal information can share without consent of parents, if a child is at risk or suffering significant harm. In the law supports, setting Manager can share information without consent. Sharing information can help other professional have a better understanding the risks that the child faced without delay.

For example: Child A in the setting experienced physical abuse and being noticed by the key worker. Child A both hands and legs showing bruise and mark. There is an evidence that Child A is suffering and risk at significant harm. To ensure Child A is receiving protection and support, the key worker should tell the manager and the manager will seek consent before they disclose, sharing confidential information to other professionals. Manager setting will make an appropriate decision refer and pass this case and information to Local authority social care service to prevent significant harm arise to Child A. Social care service will give support and advice to the parent and Child A.

Explain the benefits of working with others in the context of safeguarding, protection and welfare of children(2.3)-
It is important and beneficial working together with other professional and agencies to safeguarding, protect and help the children and their family when they are facing difficulties. They should not wait until it something seriously happens before taking actions. Other professionals like GPs, health visitors, teachers and early year’s practitioners who know the child and family, may be invited to this discussion.(Meggitt,2015:37). The Common Assessment Framework (CAF) can be used to assess, offered help and support the children and family from different agencies and professionals. They only need to record information once and parents do not need to complete multiple forms. All information is shared without missing out and given a clear full picture of the concern raise, so the child needs can be established.
Health Services – Health services are playing an important role and position to identify welfare needs or safeguarding concern of an individual child where appropriate and provide support. They need to understand the factors of the risk, communicate effectively with the children and families, assess needsand responding to those needs and contributing to multi agency to assess and reviews. Other health professionals who play role in safeguarding and promoting welfare of children includes GP, health visitor, nurse, midwives, school nurse and primary care professionals. They all working in the healthcare setting and have receive up to date training, playing their role and follow the professional guidance. For Example: Health Visitor visit a mother and noticed she is very tired and stress toward her 2 years old children behaviour and she having difficulty to manage. Early intervention might get involve to offer extra help and support to the family before the children delay the development and experience abuse and neglect. Health Visitor will give and finding some support, refer her to at local children’s centre or can arrange her to attend a course or programme. Early intervention worked well with parents and carers, for them to choose which services they need and can help them the most.

Police- Police have a legal duty and responsibility to safeguard children under 18. They are well placed to identify early from child’s welfare is at risk and when the child may need protection from significant harm or abuse. They work together with other agencies like local authority, professional healthcare and schools. They share information held by police which is relevant to protect and safeguard the child from being harm. Police will investigate criminal offences such as physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect of children. In the case of criminal, police do not always decide to prosecute but normally will pass the case to social workers to work with the family and this can help to protect the child. They have the legal and emergency power to enter the premises, remove the child from the family home in an emergency and ensure the child receive immediate protection. For example: Child A being abuse by their parent and Child A reporting this offence to the police. Police will investigate to see the parent (abuser) could be prosecuted. Police will gather evidence against the alleged abuser and all the evidence about the abuse will be used in court.

SocialServices – Social Care Services is a local authority provides services and help for adults who have children in their care. They have a statutory obligation to safeguard and promote welfare of a vulnerable children and adults by providing wide range of services, support and help the adults and the children. Social services get involved to help a particular child and family problem. Referrals from other professional who work with the family like school, teacher, GPs and health visitors can make this request on their behalf. If a child concerns being abused or neglected, professional or anyone else can approach social services, the police or contact NSPCC for advice.
For example: Child B has been physically abused by his mother. This has been going for the last 2 months and his mother admitted that she hits him because of stressed. She stressed because of jobless and do not have enough money to spend for the family living expenses. Child B is very distressed about the money matter and his mother’s abuse. The social worker allocated to the case and informed child protection officer. After the consultation with the social worker and believe Child B would be likely to suffer significant harm, so police decided not to remove him and keep him together with the family. Social worker will monitor the case and will arranged interim financial support for the family.

Identify four types of abuse (3.1)
Physical abuse – Physical abuse is a non-accidental injury which may involves someone deliberately harming a child and causing injuries.A child’swho are physically abused suffer violence such as being hit, kicked, poisoned, burned, slapped or having objects thrown at them.This particular abuse can see easily andthe signs of physical abuse may show bruises, burns or scalds, cuts, bite marks, fractures or broken bones and other injuries and health problems rise. Being hit or physically abused in any way a child can lead to poor physical and mental health problem. The child is being physical abused will being anxious, aggressive towards others, obsessive behaviour, withdrawn attitude, nightmare and depressed.

Emotional abuse–Emotional abuse is the ongoing emotional maltreatment of a child and it occurs when the child regularly been threatening ill treatment from adult. I also can be called psychological abuse and can seriously damage children health development and emotional. Children who suffer and have emotionally abused are often suffer from abuse or neglect at the same time. The emotional abuse showing the children withdrawn behaviour like not join in other in play, are aggressive behaviour or nasty towards other children, low self-esteem or lack of confident, tearfulness, eating disorder, problems sleeping and abnormal attachment. The child having emotional abuse will refuse going to school, being quiet and may often left alone. The child having emotional neglect means that children do not receive love and affection from the adult.(Meggitt,2015:39)
Neglect – Neglect abuse occurs is when a child do not receive enough or failure to meet a child’s basicphysical needs and psychological needs. The child might experiences physical and emotional harm.This is likely to end up in the serious impairment of thechild’s health or development. They often leave children alone and unattended. (Meggitt,2015:39). Signs of physical neglect will make children suffer inhungry, being underweight for their age, wearing unwashed dirty clothing, being constantly look tired, lack of energy, low self-esteem and having a very poor social relationships which may delay their learning development. The child being neglected will have a poor hygiene, diet skin, smelly body, having difficulty in concentration and learning difficulties. If a child who suffer long term from neglected abuse can be cause dangerous, serious and even death.

Sexual abuse–Sexual abuse means that the adult uses the child to gratify their sexual needs. (Meggitt,2015:39). A child is sexually abused and forced or encourage to take part in sexual activities. This can be involve contact abuse like touching any part of the child body, rape or penetration by putting an object in vagina. Non- contact abuse take part like they will encourage children to watch sex film and showing pornography to a child. Their usual behaviours will change and they might not want to being left alone with other people, such as family members or friends. They could seem afraid, poor self-esteem, lack of confidence, poor sleeping and eating disorders. The physical indicators signs will showed itching or pain in the genital area, blood on underclothes, bruises or scratches,an unusual discharge and sexually transmitted infection. Sexual abuse can ruined and damage the child childhood. Emotional and psychological effects that cause more harm in the long term sexual abuse.

to not give enough care or attention to people or things that are yourresponsibility: to not give enough care or attention to people or things that are yourresponsibility:
Describe the actions to take if harm or abuseis suspected (3.2)
If a child being noticed with bruises and Practitioner suspect this child is suffering significant harm and abuse. Practitioner might notice the children’s through the way they demonstrated things, their appearance, their behaviour, or their play. As an Early years practitioner in the setting should have read and have follow safeguarding policies and procedures to support and help the children’s who suspected being abuse. From the observation of the child they should look for the signs of abuse and understand what action to be taken if they think the child is being abused and neglected. As well as allegation either the child itself told you they being abused by their parent or other adults. Practitioners should make a dated record of the details of the concern, discusses and report the concern to the setting manager and Head of Childcare immediately. The information is stored on the child’s personal profile.Head of Childcare will refer the concerns and contact the local authority children’s social care department and co-operate fully in any subsequent investigation.
Describe the actions to take if harm or abuse is disclosed
If a child being abused and disclosed this, as a practitioner in the setting we need to give a great attention and listen carefully to the child, do not question the child, what they have told practitioner need to written down as an evidence and record. Let them express their view and feeling, reassure them they have done the right thing. Report the child’s conversation to setting supervisor or manager immediately. Abuse is never the child’s fault and practitioner will make sure the children understand and protect the children under their care. Practitioner should not talk to the alleged abuser because this could make the situation a lot worse to the child. Tell and explained to the child’s you will report this abused to someone that might be able to help, as soon as possible without delay and keep them safe.

Explain why serious case reviews are required (3.4)
“Serious case review (SCRs) are undertaken by local safeguarding children boards (LSCBs) for every case where abuse or neglect is known or suspected and either a child dies. A child is seriously harmed and there are concerns about how organisations or professionals worked together to protect the child” (accessed 22nd February 2018)
The local safeguarding children board must undertake for a serious case review is required and it takes places after a child dies or seriously injured and abuse or neglect is thought to be involved or suspected. The SCRs overview report is presented to Local Safeguarding Children Board, which decides what recommendations are to be acted upon and tracked.(Meggitt,2015:44)
The purpose of a serious case review establish is for everyone to identify whether there any lessons to be learned from the case and in which professional and other organisations work together to safeguard children, improve inter-agency working and provide a better safeguards for children. Meggitt (2015:44) state that.

Example of a serious case review:
Peter Connelly also known as Baby P died in London 2007 after he suffering more than fifty injuries over an eight month period. In 2009 a serious case review stated that Baby P was failed by all agencies involved. Three children living in the house at that time were Local Authority’s child protection register. The GP did not report or raise concernsafter bruising was found on Baby P’s chest and head. Police were find fault for not investigating suspicious injuries. The school attended by Baby P’s siblings did not share or disclose information concerning the mum. The social worker and manager do not think Baby P is at risk of harm or being harmed. No other agency involved realised that a man, boyfriend of Baby P mother with known violent tendencies was living in the house.

Add references and a bibliography
Meggitt, C (2015) Cache Level 2 Introduction to Early Years Education Care London Hodder Education (accessed 23rd February 2018) (accessed 22nd February 2018) (accessed 22nd February 2018) (accessed 22nd February 2018) (accessed 20th February 2018) 21st February 2018) 21st February 2018) 21st February 2018) 21st February 2018) 21st February 2018) (accessed 22nd February 2018) (accessed 22nd February 2018) (accessed 22nd February 2018) (accessed 22nd February 2018)