Fitness of Computer science, Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College

Fitness Function for Energy Efficient     

              Multipath Routing Protocol

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                             in MANETs



T.RADHAKRISHNA                                                    V.V.RAMAPRASAD

 II.M.Tech student, Department of Computer
Science,                      Professor, Department
of Computer science,

Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College
Tirupati, India.      Sree Vidyanikethan
Engineering College Tirupati, India


Abstract:   Mobile
Ad hoc network (MANET) is group of self-routing enabled devices that transmit
among themselves without any certain network infrastructure. Routing in MANETS
has routes between nodes in a topology with many unidirectional links using
minimum resources. Since routing protocols have role in MANETS, their
energy-awareness make greater network lifetime by efficiently using of the
available energy. In all existing single path routing schemes a new path-discovery
process is meant once a path failure is detected and it causes wastage of node
measure. A multipath routing scheme is the alternative to maximize the network
lifetime. Energy, distances are the fitness values used in the previous work to
find the optimal path in multipath routing. In this work, it is proposed to use
the network resource bandwidth as a fitness value. The calculations for
selecting routes towards the destination will be according to energy, distance
and also bandwidth. The proposed work is expected to improve the performance of
mobile ad hoc networks by prolonging the lifetime of the network. The
performance will be evaluated in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio,
end-to-end delay, routing overhead ratio, energy consumption and then compare
with the results of existing   AOMDV


 Mobile Ad hoc network, routing protocol,
multipath routing, fitness value



At present
computer performance and technologies in mobile system to communicate are being
advanced. Nodes communication can be done through links in the ad hoc networks.
Battery capacity of node is depleted which means network security is needed. Routing
protocol made the node energy effective that represent the lifetime of network.
Lifetime of a network must be maximized. There are 3 generations in MANETs:
first generation is the Packet Radio Network in 1970’s.Survivable Adaptive
Radio Network is developed by PRNET in 1980’s.To maintain MANETs there are  standards like Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11.The path
which is effective to send packets is taken and the route that is efficient can
be find using Route Request. Route reply gives the view about the hop, residual
energy and bandwidth. Link breakage can be find by the Route Error. These are
the control packets in the protocol to get the required information about the
route. First the route selection is done based on the control packets. The path
with less distance and the residual energy of the node can be  considered. When this occurs the source
transmit the package over the path to the destination without any interruption.
This can be done with the multipath routing protocol which are referred to the
one path routing protocol. In one path routing once the link splits the packets
will not transmit Whereas in multipath, path are


made to send
the data packets. Fitness function is derived from Particle Swarm Optimization
(PSO) algorithm. Fitness Function is mostly used to find the ideal route. The
optimal path is the one with:

distance and

less energy.

The optimal path
minimizes the energy loss and increases the network period. Thus the proposed
FF-AOMDV performance in maximizing the network lifetime is possible in
comparison with the AOMDV.


1.1.Existing system:

Here AODV (ad hoc on-demand
distance vector) is the protocol from which AOMDV can be taken i.e.,AOMDV
creates the multipath between the source and destination. AOMDV has route _list
which is not present in AODV and it has advertised_hopcount. As in AODV the
route reply contains the information regarding the node in AOMDV. Damage in
link happens by which multiple paths are required to send the data packets. All
the process in AOMDV is done through control packets (RREQ,RREP and
RERR).Protocol can be designed based on distance, energy and bandwidth factor.





The authors
Tejpreet Singh et al. 1 demonstrates that to maintain a routing protocol, security
and energy efficiency are the important factors. Energy-efficient Secured
routing protocol is implemented to reduce the task. Safety for the protocol is
done by Secure optimized link state routing system. To get the new route, power
status of the node is verified in the route table. Node representation to the
process is done and nodes are accessed through safe system. Access control
entity gives a a private key Ki, public key Ki and the certificate Ci needed to
get the group key by an approved node. Group key distribution obtaining the generated
keys with messages support decreasing energy usage.When a safety link is taken the
communication for the two message sender and message recipient is provided. The
group key distribution mechanism admits alternative of the group key when a
node is eliminated. Non-authorized friend is able to make the resources when
the group key is send by the authorized user.


Fig1. illustrates the group key
distribution mechanism


Sudhakar Pandey et al 2 Network
accomplishment can be enriched by using cross-layer approach. Application of sending
power charge method to arrange communication power issues in decline of energy
consumption. ED is examined to consult the weight   assisted with each node. D views for degree
and E views for energy. System usage is increased and energy consumption is
reduced by control overhead reduction. Energy method of Wireless network is stated as
the entire energy usage of the network and the units like sensor elements, routings
energy usage. For a protocol creating a model i.e., energy model to its growth
is the best method. N mobile sensor nodes, one sink node is taken with in a
network. Energy used by sensor device:  sensor
tool consists of processing units, sensing unit, memory unit and transceiver
unit. Energy usage of single unit taken is:

E Sensor Device = E processor + E sensor +

                              Ememory+Etransceiver            (1)                                                                                      

Where E Sensor Device is the energy consumed by a
sensor device, E processor is the energy depleted by the processing units, E sensor
is the energy use up by the sensing unit, E memory is the energy spent by the
memory unit and E transceiver is the energy consumed by the transceiver unit. Sensor
nodes exist many years and nearly 75% of networks energy is used for communication.
Thus the energy usage of node must be reduced because for every device energy
is utilized. So, energy usage is more and it should be decreased.


et al 3 In MANETs, two vital issues are Energy consumption and
Security. With key management, trust management, ?rewalls and intrusion
detection the security is maintained. As the security and energy are essential
for communication they are studied in routing algorithms. When the security
attacks in routing protocols are blocked energy usage is reduced. Trust score evaluation, routing and threshold setting using
the trust values are the phases in trust based secure routing algorithm. In
trust score evaluation process the trust score for distinctive nodes are
calculated depending on factors like nodes that are really able to send their
acknowledgement to neighbors when the packets are taken can be considered as
first group and the nodes that leave many packets are treated as group two
nodes. By this the trust score will be calculated through the Eq which shows
the percentage of acknowledgements.


 TS1i=(ACK/RP)*100                                    (2)


ACK = No. of acknowledgements transmit to the neighbors  TS1i = First trust score in percentage for ith node, RP
= No. of packets
accepted from  neighbors. second trust
score is estimated using Eq (3) which counts the dropped packets


TS1i=100-((DP/TDP)*100)                           (3)                                   


DP = No. of packets dropped, TDP = Entire packets
dropped in network. TS2i =Second trust score percentage for
ith node. The total trust score of the particular node is
considered using Eq. (4)


    TSi=(TSli+TS2i)/2                                      (4)                                  


TS1i = First trust score for node i, TS2i = -Second
trust score for node I, TSi = Entire trust score for node i.


establishing a cluster based network a clustering scheme is evolved with clusters.
A Cluster based Energy Ef?cient Secure Routing Algorithm (CEESRA) is proposed for
maintaining efficient routing. Malignant nodes should be prevented and traced applying
the trust score. A dynamic clustering technique not only uses low mobility
nodes, energy usage, trust values and distance terms in maintaining the energy
ef?cient secure routing algorithm.


 N.Magadevi et al 4 The nodes in Wireless
Sensor network has finite power resource. Batteries of nodes can be recharged
by charging. Single mobile anchor is used to define the charging of nodes and
localization. Mobile anchor is used to locate the static node and to maintain
the battery level. Static node batteries are recharged whenever it is less than
the threshold limit. Sensor networks main unit is sensor node that has  microprocessor, transceiver, memory and power
supply. Wireless Sensor Network is nothing but the adhoc network with group of
nodes.  There are plenty of ?elds like
disaster rescue, intrusion detection and in health care applications. Sink node
is nothing but the portal between the WSN and network. WSN has some advantages
like robustness, greater efficiency and scalability. However there are some
tasks to design WSN such as software development, deployment, localization,
hardware design, routing protocol. Both the data and current location is sent
by each sensor node. For efficient data transfer sensor node is to be accurate.
If the sufficient localization system is made there is development in networks.
Distance calculation, position estimation are the elements of localization
algorithm. Distance can be computed by taking the distance between nodes. Received
Signal Strength Indicator is the technique implemented to obtain the distance
of nodes. Wireless charging is also discussed which is an important factor.

Sensor sight
the information and exchange information to the base station through Multi hop
communication. sometimes low energy makes the sink of node which affects the
network thus an energy controlling scheme is to be designed in Wireless
Rechargeable Sensor Network. This is beneficial to improve the network’s


et al 5 The energy consumption of battery-powered mobile devices can be
increased by measured in bits per Joule for MANETs. By jointly considering
routing multimedia applications the energy ef?ciency (EE) is an essential
aspect of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Based on the cross-layer design
paradigm EE optimization is, traf?c scheduling, and power control a non convex
mixed integer nonlinear programming is modeled as a problem. Branch and bound
(BB) algorithm is devised to ef?ciently solve this optimal problem.


A MANET comprised of one set of stationary nodes N connected by a set L of
links. We consider every

link l = nt
-> nr to be directional,
where nt and nr are the
transmitter and receiver of l,


For every link l at every time slot t,
binary variable  as


  (),                                                (5)                  

Where ? = 
(1 ,…., T) and T is the total number of scheduled time slots. Transmission
power on link l at time slot t, i.e., , is continuously adjusted
in given interval 0, pmax.




 (                                                    (6)

Note that
being allowed to transmit does not necessarily mean a transmission actually
occurs, which is decided by the optimization algorithm. With recent advances in
information and communication technology (ICT), MANETs become a promising and
growing technique. Multimedia services like video on-demand, remote education,
surveillance, and health monitoring are supported using MANETs. Energy is a
scarce resource for mobile devices, which are typically driven by batteries.
Using cooperative multi-input-single-output transmissions authors maximized EE
for the MANET. By designing resource allocation mechanisms cross-layer
optimization can substantially enhance EE. By jointly computing routing path,
transmission schedule, and power control to the network, link, and PHY layers
across-layer optimization framework is proposed to enhance EE. The transmission power of every active node in
each time slot is specified by the power control problem. To globally optimize,a
novel BB algorithm is developed. In terms of computational complexity proposed
algorithm outperformed the reference algorithm. By exploiting the cross-layer
design principle a solution to determine the optimal EE of the MANET is
provided. Distributed algorithms and protocols are designed to find the optimal
EE. Any technique which can optimize non convex MINLP problem in a distributed
manner is not proposed. Thus distributed algorithms and protocols are developed
using approximation algorithms. The guarantee for acquiring the optimal
solution is the disadvantage of approximation algorithm. A customized BB algorithm
for the optimization of the problem is proposed. A novel lower bounding
strategy and branching rule is designed and incorporated in the proposed BB
algorithm. To optimize EE of MANETs distributed protocols and algorithms are
implemented. To improve EE of MANETs novel distributed protocols and algorithms
are developed.






A new
multipath routing protocol called the FF-AOMDV routing protocol is a
combination of Fitness Function and the AOMDV’s protocol. When a RREQ is
broadcast and taken, the source node can have three kinds of data to get the
shortest and optimized  path with less
energy consumption. This  has:

1.Information about network’s every node’s energy level

2.The distance of each path

energy consumed in the method of route


The source node will transmit the data packets by the
path that has more Energy level, through that it can get the energy
consumption. Through the simulation, an OTcl script is taken to demonstrate the
network parameters and topology, such as traffic source, number of nodes, queue
size, node speed, routing protocols used and many other parameters. Two files
are generated when loading the simulation: trace file for processing and a network
animator (NAM) to see the simulation.





Fig. 2 Optimum
route selection


NAM is a
graphical simulation display tool. It makes the route selection of FF-AOMDV
depending on certain

parameters. The
optimum route is the route which has the best energy level and the minimal
distance. Preference is likely to the energy level, regarding the route with
the disordered arrow.In other criteria, if the path contains maximum energy
level, but does not has the smallest distance, it will be taken but with less
preference. In other scenarios, if the intermediate nodes placed between the source
and destination with less energy levels distinguished to remaining nodes in the
network, the fitness function can select the route depending on the smallest


Available Bandwidth:

 Bandwidth is also known as the data transfer
rate. It describes the data sent out by means of connection over a specified
time and the bandwidth is expressed in bps. Bandwidth is the bit-rate of the
existing or the consumed information capacity uttered normally in metric
multiples of bits per second. As the bandwidth is kept high the energy
consumption is also high. The data packets send increases and the energy
consumed at each node is also high. The transmission power consumption is high
because the packets send are more. When the bandwidth is taken as a parameter
along with the distance and energy, energy consumption varies as:

1. when distance
increases energy consumption also increases and when the route distance is less
energy consumed will be low.

2. when
bandwidth is high energy consumption  is
also high  and when it is  less energy consumed will be low. Thus
bandwidth is the parameter considered here and the

simulation has
scenarios like node speed, packet size and simulation time. simulations are
done by keeping the scenariosas:varying the packetsize(64,128,256,512,1024) and
keep both the node speed and simulation time fixed. Packet delivery ratio,
Throughput, End-to-end delay, Routing overhead ratio are   the performance metrics used to test the
scenarios. In the proposed system as the bandwidth is the other parameter the
mathematical model is to be find based on the three parameters energy, distance
and bandwidth. Route reply’s are sent from the specified intermediate nodes by
which hop count, residual energy, Qlength, bandwidth values are taken. Let the
formula be


                  Ax1+bx2+cx3+dx4/4                     (7)              

 where   x1-> hop count,

              x2->Q length,

              x3->residual energy,


  And a,b,c,d are based on priority.By taking
the values of the parameters(x1,x2,x3,x4) optimal path can be find.






ef?ciency (EE) is an important aspect of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs).secured
routing protocol is designed that is energy efficient and security is arranged
for the two link and message without depending on the third party. A secure
connection between the participating nodes is provided by the environment of MANETS.
Energy consumption shows an vital aspect in network lifetime. As network
adjustability is an important aspect and network’s energy is used up in data
communication, Cross-Layer design access is used to improve the transmission
power for power control. Energy consumption can be reduced by the avoidance of
security attacks on routing protocols. Here to find the optimal path in
multipath routing, distance and energy are the fitness values used. It is
proposed to use the network resource bandwidth.Thus the proposed work minimizes
energy consumption and maximizes network lifetime.