European protest ethical and economic implicationsMontesquieu- Spirit

European Revolutions: Abolitionist Movement NotesAbolitionism, Encyclopædia BritannicaPeople did not see slavery as cruel and barbaric until 18th centuryEnlightenment philosophes said it violated the Rights of ManQuakers said it was against Christian beliefs” By the late 18th century, moral disapproval of slavery was widespread, and antislavery reformers won a number of deceptively easy victories during this period”Granville Sharp made it illegal for West Indian planters to have slaves in EnglandAbolition movements and a growing dislike of slavery did not affect the actual places where it was happeningDeep South (US)West IndiesSouth AmericaAbolitionists focused on these areas to get rid of slaveryWilliam Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson helped get rid of the slave trade in BritainAbolitionism, WikipediaFranceLouis X Declared that any slave that comes to FranceCode NoirRegulated slave trade and organization in coloniesSlaves had right to marry, sundays off, public assemblyStill cruel laws, but slave owners could not break apart families or tortureStated that Africans had to be taught Catholicism, meaning that they acknowledged that blacks were people with souls? NEW IDEAInterracial marriages not allowed, but happened a lot in colonies”Mulattoes”- Neither white or blackIn Enlightenment, philosophes made flyers to protest ethical and economic implicationsMontesquieu- Spirit of the LawsAbolitionNational Assembly(Robespierre) abolished slavery in 1794  During French revs, slave-owners wanted to join British who did not have anti slavery lawsFrance does not want them to leave, Napoleon reinstates SlaveryBritainCourt cases against slavery called “freedom suits”First in ScotlandAfrican slaves that could were not christian could not naturalize since England had no processCitizenship not clear until 1772Slavery considered illegal since it was not formally recognized by lawDecision did not translate to coloniesBecame part of English common lawKnight v. WedderburnOutcome: Slaves can come to scotland to escape slaverySlave trade act: 1807- slave trade illegal in British Empire ? slavery itself still commonAbolitionism in the Atlantic World, EGOIdentity/Legality of SlavesFranceLots of uncertainty about when freeing slaves is legal/illegalLots of people didn’t want to have slaves in Europe, but in colonies only where most of the work was happening Slave owners could have slaves in France unless it was temporary- training for jobs, religious educationPeople also thought that any slave who enters France should be free but people did not want blacks in France? Police de NoirsSlaves or free blacks were not allowed in the country but this law was not always enforcedEnglandSlaves not viewed as chattel slaves (bound to masters) but in servitude/ near slaverySome did not want to legally punish slave holders while others had the idea that slaves should be free the moment they enter EnglandPolitical spectrum: Liberals=abolitionists, conservatives=slave owners/no changeSlavery, World BookExpansion of European powers into the New World brought slaverySpain+Portugal bring slaves for sugar plantation, needed them for mining precious metalsMost slaves died from diseases, malnutrition, thirst, horrible living conditionsIn 17th century, Britain, Netherlands, France created colonies in Caribbean and African slave trade became even more widespread”Sugar became the main export of the European colonies, though the settlers also developed profitable coffee, cotton, and tobacco plantations”(Davis).Laws in colonies were reasonable: no cruelty, etc.These laws weren’t enforcedBrussels Declaration, GVRL”Between 1680 and 1780 over 2.1 million Africans were brought into slavery in the British Antilles alone” (Koskenniemi). – Britain is main power for slave tradeQuaker movement, French Rev, new ethical philosophy, and Puritanism all influenced abolition movement, esp in BritainDenmark is first to ban import of slaves to colonies in 1792, Britain in 1807Topic brought up at 1815 Vienna Conference ? “the obligation and necessity of abolishing it”Indev. countries abolished slavery, but no international effort to ban slavery- (atlantic slave trade)Also lots of confusion with how to prosecute slave trade/ suspected slave shipsCountries agreed to a very specific and limiting treaty for ships (eg only military ships can approach suspected ships)Britain also included African countries in late 1800s and banned slave trade in Indian Ocean and Congo areaBrussels Declaration signed in 1890Lots of development in Africa on infrastructure and governmentInternational laws on prosecution, regulation, etc. of slavesMore restrictions on how/which ships could be stopped if suspectedThe Church: Enslaver or Liberator?, BBCBoth ensavers and abolitionists used Bible (before enlightenment) as reference for situationsBible was very unclear about stance on slavery, so some people twisted it to make money while other interpretations were that slavery (or at least cruelty) was badQuakers were among the first to est, anti slavery organizationsGranville Sharp in legal case (see other source)Somerset caseFamous legal battle in England that changed slavery laws in EnglandQuakers also linked to rise of slavery howeverSome churches linked to slaveryAnglicans usually invested money earned from slave trade into churches, which influenced legal decisions in ParliamentMOST IMPORTANT FACT, appears on EVERY source- Everyone was split in terms of what is good, bad, legal, illegal, etcNo one group is ONLY pro/anti slaveryEveryone was a little of both (no true “good’/”bad” guys)In enlightenment, new philosophies changed views on slavery, people became more anti slaveryHistory of Slavery, WikipediaDenmark-Norway is first European nation to make slavery illegal in 1792France bans slavery in 1794, and in all coloniesSpain is the first country to have slaves in the new world since there was no indigenous people to work after they were killed by diseases on Hispaniola and CubaJustification was very important to Spanish royaltyCharles V ends slavery in 1542Not only abolish slavery of Europeans over natives, but also of natives over nativesFirst nation to fully and completely condemn slavery and its ideals in both Europe and new worldBut, still existed in colonies in Cuba and Puerto Rico until late 1800sSlavery banned in Netherlands, but continued in Dutch Empire550,000-600,000 slaves sent to new world from Africa75,000 slaves died on ships before they could reach their destinationsSlavery abolished in 1863, one of the last nations to make slavery illegalStill continued from many years before slaves were finally freedSlavery in AmericaIn mid 1800s, new abolition movement gained traction and was led by freed slaves and White northernersFrederick Douglass, William Lloyd GarrisonSome people argued that it was a sin to have slaves, others said that it did not contribute to the economyUnderground Railroad was a network of places where the Northerners and abolitionists were able to help slaves get to the North, where they could be freed from slavery40,000-100,000 slaves got to the North through Underground RailroadAlso spread ideas of abolition in the North, but also created a lot of political and social hostilityLed to civil warSlave revolts happened but only a handful were actually successfulSometimes, during revolts, Blacks would murder whites and whites used this as an excuse for slaveryIncreased persecution also grew abolition movement in the NorthSlavery in Europe and European Colonies, Facts on FileSlavery was mostly seen in Spain, England, Netherlands, Portugal, France and their colonies in the New WorldIn 1700s, it was also seen in Americas, Africa, Asian coloniesAbolition movement came to England first in late 1600sRobert Baxter, Morgan Goodwyn, George Fox (founded Quakers), John Locke (rights of man, social contract), Alphra Behn, Richard Steele, Alexander Pope are opponents of slavery