During the surplus of dechloranes in the

During the few past decades, demand for ?ame retardants (FRs) has increased greatly due to the increasing use plastic and electronic components in buildings as well as in the textile industry for the sake of upholding safety standards (Malik et al. 2011). FRs are persistent in nature and have toxic effects on wildlife and humans (de Wit 2002; Watanabe and Sakai 2003). Dechlorane Plus (DP; Oxychem), also known as mirex, was introduced as the surplus of dechloranes in the 1960s by Hooker Chemicals (Hoh et al. 2006). Occurrence of DP has been reported recently in water and sediment of far-?ung areas near the Great Lakes and in the bark of trees from the United States, which signi?es their potential for long-distance transmission/transport (Hoh et al. 2006; Qui et al. 2007; Qiu and Hites 2008). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have also been widely used as FR additives in the furniture industry, computer accessories, electrical components, high-impact polystyrene, textile coatings, and polyurethane foam (WHO 1994). PBDEs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) share certain properties, including structure, environmental behaviour, and potential toxicity (Wilford et al. 2004). Due to the adverse toxic effects of PBDEs on human health—such as neurotoxicology, carcinogenicity, and endocrine disruption (Malik et al. 2011; Costa