Communication that digital technologies are more durable and safe.

Communication Infrastructure and Human
Rights

Thesis
Statements

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Number one: The present-day
intellectual society has seen various technological advancements. It is, in
this regard, that the media and, more specifically, the universality of the
Internet should not be ignored. Therefore, measures towards ensuring that
Internet access is treated as a human right ought to be put in place. Such
measures include eliminating unnecessary bans on internet providers, and
provide subsidies to ensure unlimited access to internet services by every
citizen.

Number two:  The internet is one of the major sources of
technology-related negativities including reduced physical activity,
cyber-crimes, addiction, and exposure to ethically improper materials for young
adults. Hence, caution and discipline should be adopted when enjoying the
service.

Annotated
Bibliographies

Pettitt,
C. (2016). Media After Kittler. Media History, 22(1),
139-142.

In this article, Pettitt attempts to give a detailed account of the
history of communication technologies as presented by Friedrich Kittler.

Kittler begins by diving the onset of communication technology into two major
eras: the writing era entails printing and scripts, while the technological era
involves digital and analog technologies. Further, Kittler addresses the
significance of the transition from orality to written media and, most
importantly, to technical media. Kittler notes that the technical media is
developed through the code of modern mathematics and that its processes are
faster than human interactions. Overall, Kittler suggests that with more
technological advancements the more information can be stored. Thus, he
concludes by identifying that digital technologies are more durable and safe.

Feldstein,
S. (2017). Why Internet Access is a Human Right: What We Can Do To Protect
It. SSRN Electronic Journal.

The United Nations Human Rights Council has in the past years
advocated that offline rights such as the right to free speech should in equal
measures apply to online users as well. However, repressive governments are
slowing down adoption of the Internet. Therefore, this article aims at
investigating the role played by advocacy groups in promoting Internet
awareness; advocacy groups have developed responsive mechanisms to promote
standalone rights for online expression. For instance, they propel public
outrage on egregious actions such as a ban on mobile internet services. In
addition, other groups such as Access have created awareness on Internet
shutdowns.

Lucchi,
N. (2015). Internet-Based Communication: Rights, Risks and Opportunities. European
Journal of Risk Regulation, 6(01), 121-128.

According to Lucchi, the internet is gradually developing into a
significant tool for life-related needs. Majorly, it has played an immeasurable
role in promoting the right to communicate and access to knowledge. Therefore,
it is essential that internet access is made easily accessible for everybody.

This involves making it affordable and eliminating all unnecessary
restrictions. Hence, all regulatory mechanisms regarding the internet should be
consistent with the fundamental human rights and liberties.

Alam,
S., Hazrul Nik Hashim, N., Ahmad, M., Che Wel, C., Nor, S., & Omar, N.

(2014). Negative and positive impact of internet addiction on young adults:
Empirical study in Malaysia. Intangible Capital, 10(3). 

            This article comprises a study of
the negative effects of internet addiction on two hundred young adults in
Malaysia. A cross-sectional research design was applied to evaluate the extent
of internet addiction. From the results, there were five major effects of
excessive internet dependence including psychological problems, behavioural
problems, interpersonal problems, difficulties at work, and physical problems
such as poor eyesight. Through interviews, the young people believed that the
internet was boosting their skills, while in the real sense it was slowly
undermining their effectiveness.

Kalaitzaki, A., & Birtchnell, J.

(2014). The impact of early parenting bonding on young adults’ Internet
addiction, through the mediation effects of negative relating to others and
sadness. Addictive Behaviors, 39(3), 733-736.

            The aim of the study in this
article is to investigate the role of sadness, anxiety and loneliness in early
parental bonding and internet addiction. A total of seven hundred participants
from technological institutes were recruited for the study. The results from
the Internet Addiction Test showed that parenting forms have a direct impact on
internet addiction. However, fighting addiction entails combined efforts family
members and affected individuals.

Stalans,
L., & Finn, M. (2016). Understanding How the Internet Facilitates Crime and
Deviance. Victims & Offenders, 11(4), 501-508.

Based on the article, the internet is now a significant factor in
many economic departments including finance, health, education, and businesses.

Hence, internet access in all the various sectors paves the way for cyberbullying
and other related cyber-crimes. Majorly, Cybercrimes involve theft, harassment,
blackmail, and fraud. Other crimes include hacking and accessing private
information from organizations. Therefore, internet use demands adoption of
laws to prevent the violation of other people’s rights.