Translation Definitions and Meaning:
Catford (1965:1) defines translation as ”
A process of substituting a text in one language for a text in another language
Nida (1964:14) maintains ”Translation
is the interpretation of verbal signs of one language by means of verbal signs
of another ”.
Newmark (1981:7) argues that translation
is ” A craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and /or
statement in another language ”.
Newmark (1988:5) , defines translation
as ”Translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in
the way that the author intended the text” .
The Effects of Culture on Translation:
Understanding both English and Arabic
cultures is very important for English –Arabic translation. Inaccurate
translations are clear manifestations of cultural and linguistic systems
differences between source and target languages. Contact between languages on
other hand can be attained trough translation. Delisle (1988:74) asserts ”What
truly distinguishes translation is that it takes place in the context of the
relations between two cultures , two worlds of thought and perception” .
It is always true that cultural
differences as a result of different aspects of societies lead to linguistic
difficulties between both source and target languages.
Sapir (1949 ) ”Environment and
culture have a considerable influence on the language of speakers as is clearly
seen in their vocabulary ” .
Holman and Boase –Beier (1999:15) ”A
target language culture can also be extended by the introduction of new ideas
Kussmaul (1995:70) points out ”Translators have to be aware of the fact
that readers’ expectations , their norms and values , are influenced by culture
and that their comprehensions of utterances is to a large extent determined by
these expectations , norms and values ” .
It is due to several differences between
English and Arabic , collocations translation is demanding and difficult task
to perform . As Zughoul (1991) explains , ”different languages have
different collocation modes ; what collocates in one language does not
necessarily collocates in another language ” . Examples :-Pay a visit :????
‘Pay’ in Arabic means ????
Sources of collocations in Arabic and
English are different , in Arabic collocations are mainly derived from the holy
Quran , prophet Muhammad traditions and sayings , Arabic classical literature
,especially poetry , and media as newspapers ,radio and television .Whereas
,English collocations are taken from :Bible,
English literature as Shakespeare’s poems and drama , Greek and Latin civilizations , English
media, and English culture in general.
Usually some non –native speakers of
English wrongly collocate words according to their meaning they think it is
identical to their meanings in their native language . Examples:-Words like
:rancid: food , addled/bad :eggs ,
rotten: fruit /vegetables. Pretty: girl
/woman , handsome: man/woman ,
beautiful: girl/ woman , and buxom:
,attractive: person , especially in a sexual way, good –looking: person
(pleasant to look at in a sexual way), gorgeous : (informal) of a person
extremely attractive , especially in a sexual way, and lovely: person
(beautiful and very attractive) .
On the other hand , some collocations
might seem odd and strange because they are not used in their primary sense
.Examples:- Status quo :????? ?????? , and crown prince :???
Other cause of difficulty is that some
collocations are culture –based .Example:-Volley ball:???
????? , Achilles heel: ????
??? , Achilles tendon: ???
Parkinson’s disease: ????? ???????