in the business world are constant in order to adapt to the changing world for
survival and competitive advantage. In line with this, implementation of
learning and development initiatives also takes some particular considerations
on the things that it affects. Hence, issues and challenges may also arise in
From the book Organization
Development & Change by Cummings and Worly 2009, there are certain issues
and challenges of implementing intervention can be seen and realize in the
book. It talks about the misleading view of how evaluation and implementation
process should be done, however it also explains the important consideration of
measurement of relevant variable and the design of the evaluation process and how
it is intended to guide the implemented intervention. It also argues about once
the intervention is implemented then it should be evaluated to discover the
effects and its results. This process is believed to be partially correct since
implementation could not be taken for granted for it requires significant
changes particularly in people’s behaviors and ways of thinking. In line this,
it involves much trial and error that it needs to be guided by information
about behaviors and procedures that are changed.
The evaluation process should begin with determining training needs
assessment helps identify what knowledge, skills and behavior. Needs assessment
also helps focus the evaluation by identifying the purpose of the program and
the outcomes that will provide evidence that the program has been effective.
(Employee training & Development by Raymond Noe)
Conduct a Needs Analysis
Develop Measurable Learning Objectives and
Analyze Transfer of Training
Develop Outcome Measures
Choose an Evaluation Strategy
Plan and Execute the Evaluation
the action means having the objectivity and openness to consider through
questions. How change been successful? Are the issues here have not been
addressed? Were the problems of initial diagnosis or implementation?
To evaluate its training program, a
company must decide how it will determine the program’s effectiveness that must
be identifying and categorizing training outcomes that was developed (Kirkpatrick).
The hierarchical nature of Kirkpatrick suggests that the higher level outcomes
should not be measured unless positive changes occur in lower levels outcomes.
are used to determine the training program’s payoff for the company. Examples
of results outcomes include increased production and reduced costs related to
employee turn-over, accidents and equipment downtime as well as improvements in
product quality or customer service.
this time I have a definite career goal in mind.
have a strategy for achieving my career goals.
manager is aware of my career goals.
have sought information regarding my specific areas of careers interest from
friends, colleagues or company career sources.
5. I have initiated conversations concerning my
career plans with my manager.
An important issue in choosing outcomes is to
determine whether they are appropriate. Appropriate training outcomes needs to
be relevant, reliable, discriminative and practical.
Relevance refers to the extent to which training outcomes are related to the learned
capabilities emphasized in the training program. In the training program should
be the same as those required to be successful on the job. The outcomes need to
be valid measures of learning one way to ensure the relevancy of the outcomes
is to choose outcomes based on the learning objectives for the program. There
are two ways shows that training outcomes may lack relevance a criterion
contamination refers to the extent that training outcomes measure inappropriate
capabilities or are affected by extraneous conditions. Example trainees may be
asked to demonstrate spreadsheet skills using a newer version of spreadsheet
software that they used in the training program, training is not cause for the
lack of change in their spreadsheet skills trainees may have learned the
necessary spreadsheet skills but, the environment for the evaluation differs
substantially from the learning environment so, no change in skill level is observed.
Criterion deficiency also may deficient,
it refers it the failure to measure training outcomes that were emphasized in
the training objectives. Example, the objectives of a spreadsheet skills
training program emphasize that trainees both understand the commands available
on the spreadsheet. An evaluation design that uses only learning and
development outcomes such as a test of knowledge of the purpose of keystrokes
is deficient; the evaluation does not measure outcomes that were included in
the training objectives.
refers to the degree to which outcomes can be measured consistently over time.
The test is given before pre training and after post training employees attend
the program. A reliable test allows the trainer to have confidence that any
improvements in post training test scores from pre training levels are the results
of learning that occurred in the training program. (Designing training p. 228)
Discrimination refers to the degree to
which trainee’s performance on the outcome actually reflects true differences
in performance. Example, a paper and a pencil test that measures electricians’ knowledge of electrical
principles must detect true differences in trainees’ knowledge of electrical
principles. The test should discriminate on the basis of trainee’s knowledge of
electrical principles. (Designing training p. 228)
refers to the ease with the outcome measures can be collected one reason
companies give for not including learning, performance and behavior outcomes in
their evaluation of training programs is that colleting them is too burdensome.
Example, in evaluating a sales training program, it may be impractical to ask
customers to rate the sales person’s behavior cause this would place too much of
a time commitment on the customer and probably damage future sales relationship.
(training evaluation p.229)