GKA 2043-RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Invention of Canting tool
PREPARED BY :
Nurul Afiqah binti Amir
Matric No. :
( Industrial Design )
TABLE OF CONTENT
TOC o “1-3” u ABSTRACTIIi
1.0 introduction1 PAGEREF _Toc511598801 h .
1.1 Statement of the problem2
1.2 Research Questions2
1.3 Purpose/Objectives of Study2
1.4 Scope of Study2
1.5 Significant of the study3
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW4
2.2 Overview of Batik-Based on Production in Malaysia4
2.2.2 Batik Industry5
2.2.3 Canting Tools5
2.2.4 Types of Canting6
2.3 Batik Canting in Malaysia.7
3.2 Qualitative Approach10
3.3 Validation and Analysis11
4.0 Data collection12
4.2 Visual Study12
4.3 Interview Session15
Appendix 1: Script 1 with the manufacturer18
Appendix 2: Script 2 with the owner19
Appendix 3: Screenshot whatsapp with the owner19
Canting or ‘tjanting’ is a traditional hand tool like pen that is used to apply hot wax in lines on a cloth to create beautiful batik designs, more precisely ‘batik tulis’. Traditional canting consists of bamboo handle, copper wax container as body part with a small spout pipe. Canting is made of copper, bronze, zinc, and iron material. In traditional process, the wax has to be melted on the stove then the molten wax will be poured into canting tool. This traditional method is complicated and required skills just for preparation of canting processes. This research is an attempt to use other materials and create a new design more ergonomics and ease the use of batik tool which will enhance the batik industry in Malaysia.
1.0 INTRODUCTION (Chapter 1 in Project Report)
Batik is one of the most famous handicrafts in Malaysia. It has been used, produced and found all over Indonesia and it is mostly associated to Javanese society as its main origin (K. Saddhono, etc, 2014 cited in I.S.S. Sharifah, etc, 2017). G. P. Rouffaer reported that the gringsing batik pattern was already known by the 12th century in Kediri, East Java. Batik industry has a long history in Malaysia. It begins with small-scale operation, batik production has developed into a lucrative cottage industry and national enterprise. According to (Sheares, 2008 cited in I.S.S Sharifah, etc, 2017) batik industry transferred itself from Singapore to Kota Bahru, Kelantan and by 1949, it had spread to Kuala Terengganu. Since 1970, the industry has diffused to other centres in Malaysia, notably Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Kuantan and Johor Bahru, as a result of active government support and an increasing overseas demand for the textile.
Motif is the decorative patterns used in the process of batik painting. The forms of batik are produced in two main forms which are Motif Organic and Geometric Motif. Organic motifs characterized nature as clouds, plants, flowers, and animals. According to (Meesha Sukira, 2015) the word ‘batik’ itself meaning ‘to draw with a broken dot or line’, comes from two words which are the Javanese word amba, ‘to draw’ and the Malay word for ‘dot’, titik. Then, Malaysian Batik is believed to have been influenced by Javanese art in terms of the development of the designs as well as the technical aspect of creating batik using wax and copper blocks. Hand drawn batik on the other hand is said tobe influenced by Javanese Batik Tulis.
Basically, there are two traditional way of batik making in Malaysia: Batik canting and batik “cop”. For batik canting, designs are drawn on the prepared fabric with liquid wax by using metal object called canting (Batik Malaysia, 2016). It requires high skills and creativity to produce high quality and inspiring pattern of batik. Batik “cop” will used copper block as replaced the canting. The block will be dipped into the wax and then print onto the prepared fabric (Batik Malaysia, 2016). Hand printed batik process is slow, as it take time and energy compared to the process for block printed batik which is faster but its more value.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
There is a problem in traditional method of canting batik as it is quite complicated. For the canting process, the wax has to be heated on the stove until it melts before the wax can be feed into the canting tool. Then, it can be used to sketch on the cloth based on the design had been created. If the melted wax has been stored for a long time inside the canting tool, it will freeze and can cause the canting tool to be stuck with the frozen wax. Thus, this research is generally aimed to examine its potential use as invention of canting tool.
1.2 Research Questions
The research will based on several questions:
1.What is batik?
2.What is canting?
3.What is the suitable materials use for canting tool?
4.How to maintain the temperature for the wax?
1.3 Purpose/Objective of the studyThere are four objectives to be achieved at the end of the study:
1.To identify types of batik.
2.To explore the way of using canting.
3.To analyse the suitable material use for canting tool.
4.To develop a heating element that ensures continuous flow of wax at specified temperature.
5.To validate the effective of invention of the canting tool in batik industries.
1.4 Scope of Study
The research main location is at Batik RM as there is location of batik printing process in Kuantan, Pahang. The validation test will also be carried out at the same location.
The experiment and the construction of canting tool will be carry out in the FACA workshop.
1.5 Significant of the Study
To provide an alternative easy and faster way for batik manufacturers to do batik making process.
The invention of canting tool intended to provide a better method to create batik and give convenience to batik manufacturer. The invention also can be very useful not only to batik manufacturers but everyone who want to learn doing batik. Hence, this technology used can brings the industry of Malaysia batik to another level.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW (Chapter 2 in Project Report)
This part will discuss in detail about literature used in this research. This literature review is to identify concept used and also the definition which is related to the research title. To achieve the objectives of this research the researcher need to understand the concept and definition.
The researcher will use several of secondary resources such as books, online journals and related websites to complete the literature review on definition of the research title.
2.2 Overview of Batik-Based on Production in Malaysia
Batik is a method of dyeing fabric and makes it by using wax. Originally, batik come from Indonesia but now they also can be found in Malaysia, Japan, China, Azerbaijan, India, Sri Lanka, Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal and Singapore. In Malaysia, Malaysian Batik is batik textile art of Malaysia especially on the east coast of Malaysia. Now, the batik business is also growing faster than ever before and who knows batik that is synonymous with cloth and ‘baju kurung’ can become modern clothes. (Utusan Online, 2013)
Figure 2.1 The drawing of Malaysian Batik (from wikipedia Malaysian Batik, 2018)
2.2.2 Batik Industry
The local batik industry is expected to continue growth with current fashion developments as there are fashion designers to produce clothing and other products based on batik. (Azlinda, 2013). Currently, batik is not only popular among locals, especially Malays but also very popular and favourite by foreign tourists who come to this country. Speaking to the media back then, Mustapa said, with a total annual value of around RM160mil, the local batik industry was facing stiff competition from other batik manufacturing nations and with just 150 of more than 400 batik producers in Kelantan still active, the industry was in dire need of a revival (Nevash, 2014).
2.2.3 Canting Tools
‘Canting’ or sometimes spelled with old Dutch orthography as tjanting is a pen like tool used to apply liquid hot wax in the batik making process. Traditional ‘canting’ consists of copper wax container with small pipe spout and bamboo handle. The size of ‘canting’ is according to the desired dot size or line thickness to be applied to the cloth.
Figure 2.2Canting tool (from Alat Batik Jogja, 2018)
Canting consists of three parts which are namely as ‘Cucuk’, ‘Nyamplung’ and ‘Gagang’. (Abu Hanida, 2018). ‘Cucuk’ or often called carat is a small copper pipe, shaped like a curved hose, made of copper which is functioned to drain the night from Nyamplung. Cucuk sizeis what often affects the size of the scratches above to the fabric. ‘Nyamplung’ is a small container that is used to accommodate the night, while ‘Gagang’ is the handle which is a base made of wood or bamboo serves for handrails.
2.2.4 Types of Canting
There are three ways of classifying the types of canting which are based on its function, based on the diameter of its ‘cucuk’, and based on the number of its ‘cucuk’.
Based on its function:
Canting Rengrengan: canting that is ideally used to make a batik pattern for the first time.
Canting Isen: canting that is ideally used to fill a pattern that has been made beforehand.
Based on the diameter of its ‘cucuk’:
Small Canting: canting that has a small-sized ‘cucuk’ with a diameter of less than 1 millimeter and is usually used as Canting Isen.
Medium Canting: canting that has a medium-sized ‘cucuk’ with a diameter of 1 – 2.5 millimeters and is usually used as Canting Rengrengan.
Large Canting: canting with a large-sized ‘cucuk’ with a diameter of more than 2.5 millimeters and is usually used to make a larger batik pattern or to fill a pattern that has been made beforehand with a block of wax.
Based on the number of its ‘cucuk’:
Canting Cecekan: canting with one ‘cucuk’.
Canting Laron/Loron: canting with two ‘cucuk’.
Canting Telon: canting with three ‘cucuk’ that forms an equilateral triangle.
Canting Prapatan: canting with four ‘cucuk’ that forms a square.
Canting Liman: canting with five ‘cucuk’ that forms a square with a dot in the center of the square.
Canting Byok: canting with an odd number of ‘cucuk’ and is equal to or more than seven ‘cucuk’ that forms a circle with a dot in the center of the circle.
Canting Renteng/Galaran: canting with four or six ‘cucuk’ that forms two parallel lines.
‘Lilin malam’or wax is a special candle making batik which is one of the main ingredients to make batik, especially ‘batik tulis’ and ‘batik cap’ . Wax is used for the process of batik to cover certain parts so that it is not exposed to die. Generally, it is made of various materials that are insoluble in water. The composition of the ingredients is adjusted so that when the wax is used has resistance to water, it can melt when the heat is more or less at 59 degrees Celsius, not easily broken when dry and able to stick to the fabric well.
Figure 2.3 ‘Lilin Malam’ (from J&J Batik, 2016)
(Source: http://www.jnjbatik.com/blog/malam-atau-lilin-untuk-membatik/ )
2.3 Batik Canting in Malaysia
The origin of batik production in Malaysia is not easy to trace. Few historical artifacts exist, but it is known trade relations between the Melayu Kingdom in Jambi and Javanese coastal cities have thrived since the 13th century. (Wikipedia, 2018). The technique is thought to be well over a thousand years old and historical evidence demonstrates that cloth decorated with this resist technique was in use in the early centuries AD in Africa, the Middle East and in several places in Asia. Although there is no sure explanation as to where batik was first ‘invented’, many observers believe that it was brought to Asia by travellers from the Indian subcontinent (Emilia, n.d.)
Batik is legacy for all ages. In Malaysia, ‘Batik Canting’ heavily influenced by the Javanese, but as this time Malaysia batik has forged its own path with simple, delicate designs to please most people (Bymalaysia, 2015). In addition, Batik produced in this country has successfully penetrated the world of international fashion and gained widespread demand. Normally batik designs and motifs are inspired by nature such as flora and fauna which are then combined with geometric or abstract patterns.
Figure 2.4 Batik Malaysia (from Quaro , 2017)
(Source: https://www.quora.com/How-does-Indonesian-batik-differ-from-Malaysian-batik )
The majority of batik users are composed of those who love classical style but still remain luxurious. Most of the users are among the elites such as Royal relatives, Ministers and Dato’. They dressed in batik outfits to formal functions and official ceremonies. Besides that,the government has set its officers and staff to wear batik clothing every Thursday. (MasterWan, n.d.) Another feature to be noted in the Malaysian Batik industry is the relatively simple and inexpensive production systems as well as the organisation of the production process. Flexibility is the underlying strength of any low technology and this is a feature of the Malay batik industry. (Emilia, n.d.)
As the technology growth faster, Malaysia should have another initiative to make batik industry become more successful in future. As reported in 2016, the performance of the national batik industry is seen to be in a static state that is not well developed when it has not been able to stand firm on the international stage and to fierce competition against other batik producing countries. Therefore, the study is carried out to do an invention of canting tool to make the craftsman’s job easier. The main objective is to study about batik canting in Malaysia. In addition to that, the second objective to develop heating elements that ensure continuous flow of wax at specified temperature.
Batik canting is one of Malaysia local industry which is a heritage for this country. Nowadays, the modern equipment such as machine-operated machines are introduced. The development of technology in the manufacture of batik enhances this industry, especially to fulfill the market demand that is increasing. As the demand of batik increase by year, the invention of canting tool has to be concern. It will help the craftsman to finish the process of making batik in short time and easier. It also saves time and energy to produced batik. Thus, this study focused on exploration, observation and experimentation of canting tool for more innovative to make the craftsman’s job easier.
3.0 METHODOLOGY (Chapter 3 in Project Report)
This part discussed the methodology used in research. This will apply qualitative approach. The qualitative approach will use to gather data through interview session with batik designer and batik manufacturers who are directly involved in the batik making process in the area of Kuantan, Pahang.
The researcher will be arranging several visits to the manufacturing place to do observation on how the batik making process occurs.
3.2 Qualitative Approach
This qualitative approach will focus and use to gather data through interview session with the batik designer and manufacturer workers who are directly involved in the batik making process. The interview will be conducted with several questions about the batik making details, tools used for canting and the any problem faced.
This qualitative approach will focus on the involvement of researcher in the making batik process to collect data for analysis.
This qualitative approach will focus on the observation in the real situation and video of batik making process to collect the data for analysis. It will involve the period taken to complete the batik.
3.3 Validation and Analysis
The research of validation and analysis will test by the manufacturer workers by making batik canting and the analysis will use on the data collected. Ergonomic is also one of the main parts in this research.
The research is divided into four phases:
Research : journals, articles, books and articles
Experience from the makers
Research : journals, articles, books and articles
Experience from the makers
Collect data from the visual research
Survey method 1 : Interview session with manufacturers
Survey method 2 : Interview session with the owner of batik company
Invention of canting tools to show the design and the suitable materials used.
The canting tools will be test by the batik manufacturers
Figure 3.1: Research Methodology Phases
The design of canting tool is intended to provide a better way of batik making process for manufacturer’s worker as batik making is one of the cultural heritage that managed to survive until nowadays after over the year. The existing design is focused as tool for batik making and if the melted wax has been stored for a long period inside the tool, it will be freezing and cause the tool stuck with the frozen wax. To increase the function and usage of canting tool is the main goal for the process of redesign the canting tool with the advance technology as well as the process of batik making has received great attention that aid the batik industry. Therefore, the data collected for this research are important for researcher to design a new potential canting tool for batik making process. Thus, this study focused on the redesign of new invention of canting tool which is user friendly and low in cost.
4.0 DATA COLLECTION (Chapter 4 in Project Report)
This part discussed the data collection get by researcher. The qualitative approach used to gather data through the interview session with batik designer and batik manufacturer as they are more expert in this field.
4.2 Visual study
Canting are tools that used in creating batik patterns. They are used by batik manufacturers and artisans worldwide which is from the traditional to the contemporary way. They hold wooden handle and dispense hot wax in such a way that the manufacturers can control the pattern laid down by the wax with the correct deal of precision.
In addition, there are several more unique types for batik techniques. Every type of techniques has their own advantages.
Types of technique Definition
Canting Tulis The first technique of batik which is very old but highly traditional. This technique needs a person with high skill due to its complexity. The pattern on the batik is detailed and complex which adds more value
Printing The method is first introduced to the mass during the 70s. It is use a printing machine. Quicker production means less time is needed to produce one batik fabric
Cap Cap works in similar way as a stamp. The stamp is carefully pressed on to the fabric and it needs to have full focus has to end up neat. The price is relatively cheaper for public consumption but the fabric is still one of the most beautiful fabric.
Jumputan/Celup Ikat Also know as tie-dye technique. This technique makes it fairly easy to create batik pattern is revealed. The patterns as well as the colours on the fabric are very distinct, unique, colourful and vibrant.
Colet This method is similar to painting the batik pattern on the fabric. The person making the fabric will spread out some colouring on the fabric using a brush.
Table 4.1: 5 Unique Types of Batik Techniques
(Source: https://factsofindonesia.com/types-of-batik-techniques )
But basically, there are two main types batik is produced in Malaysia which used different type of tools. One is hand-painted (batik canting) which use the canting tools and another one is block-printed (batik “cop”) which use a metal block. The canting tool is very simple and it is a small tool, wooden handle with a small thin wall spouted copper container which is connected each other.
Figure 4.1: Traditional canting tools (from Anita, 2015)
(Source: https://javanist.com/macam-macam-canting-untuk-membatik/ )
In the modern days, based on the some research that have been made regarding to the improvement for batik industry, there are a few things that have been improve from the design of the batik itself until to the development and improvement of new tools of canting.
Figure 4.2: Electrical canting tool ( ebay, n.d )
(Source: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Electric-Batik-Pen-Tools-Chanting-Canting-Tjanting-SML-Size-EU-Plug-/182130866275 )
Traditional canting tool Electrical canting tool
Pros Low maintenance
Take long time to finish the process. Saving time to finish to process.
Easy the manufacturers to make patterns.
Temperature can be control
Cons Wax always stuck at the spout
Hard to control temperature of canting tool
The quality of patterns produces not constantly. High maintenance
Interview session 1 has been done via phone call with the manufacturers.
Based on the interview session, the researcher had interview with one of the manufacturers of batik named Rabiatul Adawiyah, 31 years old. Rabiatul works as batik artist for about 5 years. She shares her experienced about handling the canting tool with researcher. She said that their company still using the traditional tools. And based on her experience handling canting tools, it’s quite hard to handle it at first. But, after use it for several times it will become easier. The important thing before start to draw is make sure that the waxes have been heated until it reaches the suitable temperature to avoid the wax stuck in ‘cucuk’. The advantage of traditional tool is light, so it is easy to handle. She also mentioned that when they are drawing the pattern on the cloth, the speed of wax is not constantly flow out. Then, they need to top up it frequently as the container (nyamplung) not too big. The wax also will be cool so they need to draw fast to avoid it stuck in the canting tool. The other problem occur is when the process of heating or melting the wax was done using the stove and then the melting wax transferred into the canting tool before drawing onto the fabric. It quite complicated and will make the ‘cucuk’ stuck if the wax cooled instantly. Rabiatul also suggest to create new designs that prevent all the problem happened from occurs. For example, researcher can use the concept like hot glue gun. It won’t stuck the glue from flow out. And then make sure the new design will long lasting which can stand for a long life span
Interview session 2 has been done via whatsapp and phone call with the owner of RM Batik.
Based on the interview session, the researcher had interview with the owner of RM Batik. Her name is Jamaliah binti Abdul Razak. She had been in this industry for almost 30 years. Usually her company took for about 3 days to finish all the process of batik making. For the tools used, they still use the traditional canting tool. She said so far, there is no serious problem occurs during the process of batik making. As the technology grow fast, the demand of pure batik is having a great competitor with batik that produce by the machine. But, there are still many people are looking for pure batik as the value is high compare to the batik produce by machine. She also interested if there are new invention of canting tool with new technology. She mentioned that make sure the new design can help the manufacturers and easy their work.
Meesha. S. (2015, Jan 10). The History of Batik in Malaysia. Retrieved from https://meeshasukira.wordpress.com/2015/01/10/the-history-of-batik-in-malaysia/I.S.S. Sharifah, A.T.B.S. Tengku Nurul, M.K. Nor Khairusshima. (2017). Advances in Material & Technologies Conference: Thermal Modelling and Analysis of Batik Canting Design. Procedia Engineering, 184(2017), 326-333. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.04.102
Batik Malaysia. (2016, Sept 13). Retrieved from http://www.klib.com.my/batik-malaysia/
The local batik industry is believed to thrive. (2013, May 20). Retrieved from http://ww1.utusan.com.my/utusan/Ekonomi/20130520/ek_02/Industri-batik-tempatan-diyakini-terus-berkembang-majuNevash. N. (2014, Sep 23). A boost for batik. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/community/2014/09/26/a-boost-for-batik-designers-work-lifts-profile-of-traditional-fabric/Abu. H. (2018, Jan 01). Pengenalan Canting. Alat Batik Jogja. Retrieved from http://tokoalatbatikjogja.blogspot.my/2018/01/pengertian-canting.htmlWikipedia Canting. (2018, March 27). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CantingMalam atau Lilin untuk Membatik. (2016, Nov 06). Retrieved from http://www.jnjbatik.com/blog/malam-atau-lilin-untuk-membatik/By malaysia. (2015, Jun 23). Malaysia Batik. Retrieved from http://www.mymalaysia.com.au/malaysian-batik/Batik Malaysia Menongkah Cabaran. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.masterwanbatik.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=167:batik-malaysia-menongkah-cabaran&catid=34:blog-masterwanbatik&Itemid=40APPENDIX
Appendix 1: Script 1 with the manufacturer
Interviewer: Assalamualaikum, my name is Nurul Afiqah binti Amir. I am student from UNIMAS and I want to make an interview about the canting tool which is the tools use in batik making. Firstly, can you introduce yourself?
Interviewee: Waalaikumussalam. My name is Rabiatul Adawiyah. I am 31 years old. I work as batik artist.
Interviewer: Okay, can you share with me about your experience handling canting tool? Are you still using the traditional tools?
Interviewee: Yes, we are still using the traditional tools. And based on my experience handling canting tools, it’s quite hard to handle it at first. But, after use it for several times it will become easier. The important thing before start to draw is make sure that the waxes have been heated until it reaches the suitable temperature to avoid the wax stuck in ‘cucuk’.
Interviewer: Next, what is the advantage of the traditional canting tools?
Interviewee: The tool is light so we can easily move it to draw follow the patterns that had been made. Then, it’s a good conductor but cannot stand for a long period to make sure the wax hot.
Interviewer: Then, how about the cons of traditional canting tools?
Interviewee: When we are drawing the pattern on the cloth, the speed of wax is not constantly flow out. Then, we need to top up it frequently as the container (nyamplung) not too big. The wax also will be cool so we need to draw fast to avoid it stuck in the canting tool. So, we need a good skill to handle the canting tools.
Interviewer: So, there are another problem occur while doing batik making?
Interviewee: As I mentioned, when the ‘cucuk’ is stuck, we have to use another canting tools and clean the stuck wax at the canting tools. So, that will waste some time. Then, when the process of heating or melting the wax was done using the stove and then the melting wax transferred into the canting tool before drawing onto the fabric. It quite complicated and will make the ‘cucuk’ stuck if the wax cooled instantly.
Interviewer: If I want to make a new design of canting tools that make your job easier, what is our opinion?
Interviewee: The already tools is quite good already as its design have a small hollow of ‘cucuk’ and it will produces a neat patterns. But, sometimes the wax is stuck so my opinion is you can create a new design that prevent that things from occurs.
Interviewer: Okay, so do you have any suggestion for me to create a new design of canting tools?
Interviewee: You can use the concept like hot glue gun. It won’t stuck the glue from flow out. And then make sure the new design will long lasting which can stand for a long life span.
Interviewer: I see. Okay thank you for your cooperation and for your time spent with me.
Interviewee: It is okay. Most welcome.
Appendix 2: Script 2 with the owner
Interviewer: Assalamualaikum. My name is Afiqah. Sorry for disturbing you, and I want to make some interview session. I want to collect some data about the uses of canting tools for my research. Can you introduce yourself?
Interviewee: Waalaikumussalam. I am Jamaliah bt Abdul Razak.
Interviewer: Then, I have a few questions to ask. Firstly, how long have you been in this industry?
Interviewee: Almost 30 years I have involved in this business.
Interviewer: Usually, how long the time taken to complete the process of batik making?
Interviewee: For our company, we took for about 3 days to finish all the process of batik.
Interviewer: Are you still using the traditional canting tools?
Interviewee: Yes, we are still using the traditional canting tools.
Interviewer: Is it any problem occurs during the process of making batik?
Interviewee: So far, there is no problem occur during the process.
Interviewer: How about the demand, is it still get the high demand for nowadays?
Interviewee: The demand of pure batik is having a great competitor with batik that produce by the machine.
Interviewer: If there is new canting tool with technology, are you going to use it?
Interviewee: If there is no problem occurs with the new canting tool, I am interested to use it. Make sure the new design can help the manufacturers and easy their work.
Interviewer: Oh I see. Thank you for the cooperation and information. I wish to cooperate with you in incoming days.
Interviewee: Okay. I will help you as I can.
Interviewer: Thank you again
Appendix 3: Screenshot of the conversation with the owner. This in only a few data that researcher get via whatsapp. Then, the data also get via phone call.