Canada and Sustainable Development Goal 8
The key points for an enthusiasm city are a strong economy and quality work opportunities for all citizens. Progress toward economic wealth and employment security is essential for meeting the 2030 Agenda. It also has multiplier effects for outcomes in other areas of community well-being. In this series focuses on Sustainable Development Goal 8, which aims to “promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all” (United Nations Economic and Social Council, 2017). The three primary elements of these goals are to: improve employment and provide decent work and social protection, support green growth and encourage sustainable tourism.Based on recommendations from the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators (IAEG-SDGs), the United Nations Statistical Commission (UNSC), suggested using 17 indicators to monitor progress on SDG 8. There are some highlights for SDG 8 indicators; GDP across all Canadian cities has been increasing steadily since 2005. GDP per employed person in Canada rose 26.5 percent between 2005 and 2013. Between 1992 and 2015, median income increased in all Canadian cities. While women’s median wage increased faster than that of men, all cities continue to experience a substantial gender pay gap. Unemployment rates in Vancouver and Victoria decreased between 2002 and 2016, whereas Prairie cities included in this chart experienced increases. Youth unemployment rates for Canada peaked in 2009 and have been declining since; however, only Halifax, Quebec City, Regina, Saskatoon, and Victoria have reduced youth unemployment compared to 2001 levels.Labor productivity is measured by using annual GDP per employed person and can help inform and monitor labor market policies. From 2008 to 2009, average GDP per employed person dropped slightly for Canada and the cities of Ottawa and Regina. Except for Ottawa, these cities have since rebounded and GDP per employed person has increased steadily beyond the 2005 rates. Ottawa has yet to recuperate fully but still has a GDP above the Canadian average of CAD 100,458.03. And unemployment rates vary with the overall state of the economy. Between 2002 and 2016, the Canadian average unemployment rate decreased after recovering from a sharp increase in 2008/2009 in the context of the global financial crisis. However, unemployment rates in the studied Prairie province cities, including Edmonton, Calgary, Saskatoon, and Winnipeg have all increased. In 2016, Calgary’s unemployment rate increase in 2002; the highest city documented on the IISD SDG indicator portal. Quebec City had the lowest unemployment rates, decreasing from 6.5 percent in 2002 to 4.6 percent in 2015. These data show that, while the overall Canadian trend is positive, unemployment in several cities has shown a negative trend reflecting local economic conditions.The indicator tracks youth unemployment for Canadian cities from 2001 to 2016. During this time, the youth unemployment rate in Canada increased peaking during the financial crisis. Since then, seven cities have experienced a decrease in youth unemployment: Halifax, Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto, Calgary, Vancouver, and Victoria. While youth unemployment rates for Canada have been declining since 2009, only five cities have reduced youth unemployment compared to 2001 levels: Halifax, Quebec City, Regina, Saskatoon, and Victoria. In 2015, youth unemployment rates in Ottawa and Toronto were the highest of all studied cities. And Equal pay for women and men for work of equal value is central to realizing gender equality and women’s economic empowerment, reducing poverty and is beneficial to promote economic growth. This also can achieve other SDGs too.As a conclusion, a strong economy and quality work opportunities are important aspects of a vibrant city and are also connected to achieving other SDGs. In GDP per capita, Canadian cities have generally grown economically over the last decade. However, the benefits related to this growth have not been equally distributed. Over a 20-year span, although the median annual income of females has increased four times faster across the selected Canadian cities than that of males, women’s median wage nonetheless represents only 68 percent of the median annual income of males. Furthermore, while the unemployment rate has generally decreased, youth unemployment rates have increased in most cities since 1992. By tracking these indicators for Canadian cities, it is possible to determine which challenges are most to target policy interventions at a local level, to leave no one behind in Canada’s efforts to achieve SDG 8.
Canada and Sustainable Development Goal 8