‘BIOPLASTICS’-from a path away from harmful additives and moreover

 ‘BIOPLASTICS’-from corn to plastics.
Type of article-research paper
Running title-bioplastics-an effective alternative
V.SHARON KEZIAH
Undergraduate student 
Saveetha dental college
Saveetha university,
Chennai,
India.

Corresponding author
Mrs.Gayathri 
Assistant professor 
Department of biochemistry 
Saveetha dental college
Saveetha University
 Chennai
India. 

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Author name-V. SHARON KEZIAH
Corresponding author-Mrs Gayathri.R
Year of study-2017-2018

ABSTRACT
Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, banana peel, potato starch. Fossil-fuel-derived plastics are non-renewable, often threaten the environment ,have declining impacts on marine life and increase dependence on imported fossil fuel-based feedstocks.The development of bioplastics help to solve many of these sustainability problems, offering the potential of renewability, biodegradation, and a path away from harmful additives and moreover a healthy earth.
Plastics become an essential commodity to enhance the comfort  and quality of life. They are the needed part of almost all industries and have influence in medicine too.(1)

Choking Hazard – Plastic is the most popular building materials for little items. This is very much true in toy industry, where vast majority of children toys is manufactured with plastic. These toys can easily get into children’s hands especially babies and toddlers that unknowingly put them in their mouth(2).other small object of many various uses can also cause such incidents.
 To prevent these unfortunate accidents, toys  made of bioplastics can be used.they cause no such life threatening hazards and  can also be made in all shapes and sizes of variant colours. Bioplastics are no different than ordinary plastics.they come in all types of forms , can be moulder as per wish and can be made in many colours.
The only difference is their healthy advantages that should be considered in the fast developing world.

Introduction 
Plastics has been incredibly useful to us in various ways.But its overuse has been causing our planet many environmental problems such as pollution,degradation,cancer etc.
To overcome this problem, an alternative yet effective solution is BIOPLASTICS.
Bioplastics are a large family of different materials.
Bioplastics are not composed of one single material. They comprise of a whole family of materials with different properties and applications.  a plastic material is defined as a bioplastic if it is either, biobased, biodegradable, or features both properties.

Biobased: The term ‘biobased’ means that the product is derived from (living) biomass (plants). Biomass used for bioplastics stems from e.g. corn, sugarcane, or cellulose.(2)

Biodegradable: Biodegradation is a chemical process during which microorganisms that are available in the environment convert materials into natural substances such as water, carbon dioxide, and compost . The process of biodegradation depends on the surrounding environmental conditions .(3)

Biodegradation depends on the surface conditions ,the first order structures (chemical structure, molecular weight and molecular weight distribution) and the high order structures (glass transition temperature, melting temperature, modulus of elasticity, crystallinity and crystal structure) . (4)

Bioplastics are driving the evolution of plastics.they save fossil resources by using biomass which regenerates (annually) and provides the unique potential of carbon neutrality. Furthermore, biodegradability is an additional property of certain types of bioplastics. 

The most infamous talk on plastics causing cancer is one to be noted. At least some amount of the cancer population has been affected by plastics.The chemicals present in them or their abundant use in an unhealthy way could be one of the cause.So, bioplastics can also an alternative healthy solution .

Types of bioplastics.some usually used types of bioplastics are based on cellulose, starch, glucose and oil. Specific techniques are then employed to convert these feedstocks into thermoplastic starch, polylactic acid, poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, polyamide 11 and biopolyethylene.

Starch
Today, thermoplastic starch, worldwide , for around       50 %  of the global bioplastics market, is the most       famous and widely used bioplastic. Flexibiliser and plasticiser such as sorbitol and glycerine are the materials  to process the starch. Thermoplastic starch generally represents just one component of which starch based bioplastics are formed. The second half of the blends consists of water repellent and biologically degradable polymers like polyester, polyesteramids, polyesterurethanes or polyvinylalcohols. Throughout the melting process, the water soluble, disperse starch phase and the water-insoluble, plastic are bond together to form a waterproof starch plastic.  thermoplastic starch are widely used as  bags, yogurt tubs, cups, plant pots, cutlery, diaper foil, coated paper and cardboard. Most of the starch derives from crops such as potatoes or corn.

PLA
PLA (polylactic acid or polylactide) is by far the most promising bioplastic for the near future. Its properties resemble conventional fossil fuel based plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). It can easily be processed on manufacturing facilities that already exists for the production of common petrochemical based plastics – no further industrial investments are required. PLA is mostly produced by the fermentation of starch from crops, commonly corn, wheat or sugarcane into lactic acid followed by subsequent polymerization.
Its blends have a wide range of applications including computer and mobile phone casings, biodegradable medical implants, foil, moulds, tins, cups, bottles and packaging devices.

Shoping Bag made of PLA-Blend Bio-Flex (F. Kesselring, FKuR Willich)
PLA and PLA copolymer plastics have already been uses successfully for medical and pharmaceutical purposes such as the production of screws, nails, plates and implants that can be resorbed by the body. Also the use of PLA – nanoparticles as drug carrier or MRI contrast agent is currently investigated.
PLA is a very versatile bioplastic. By varying composition and quality it can be designed to biodegrade quickly or last for years. Additionally, PLA possesses an extraordinary stability, as well as an extremely high transparency.
However, PLA also has a significant disadvantage. The plastic softens at a temperature of about 60 degrees Celsius, which limits its application for the production of packages for hot drinks and food. Copolymerisation with heat resistant polymers and the addition of fillers overcome these drawbacks.
A barrier for wider application is still the high cost of production. While the feedstock for conventional thermoplastics like PE costs about 1000 € / ton the expense for lactic acid for the production of PLA is about 1300 € / ton – significantly higher. But as the price for crude oil is constantly rising and improved PLA manufacturing methods are developed, the difference in prices becomes continuously smaller.
PHB
The bio-polyester: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate is generally produced by bacteria processing glucose or starch. Its characteristics are similar to those of the fossil crude oil derived plastic polypropylene.
The production of PHB is currently expanding. Companies worldwide, especially the South American sugar industry, either begin production of PHB or enlarge their existing production capacity, which would most likely result in a price reduction to fewer than 5 € / kg (this would still be about 4 times the market price of polyethylene). PHB is distinguished from most other currently available biodegradable plastics primarily by its physical characteristics such as the insolubility in water and its resistance to hydrolytic degradation. It produces transparent film at a melting point of 175° C, and is biodegradable without residue. PHB is probably the most common type of a substance class termed as polyhydroxyalkanoates, but also many other polymers of this polyester class are produced by a variety of organisms.

Keywords:bioplastics ,renewable, biomass, sustainability.
 
Aim
To show the importance of bioplastics for global development and to encourage their usage to young generation.

Objective
To create awareness on the hazardous effects of plastics on the environment .
To offer an effective and better alternative to plastics.
To reduce environmental pollutions by a large differences.
To deduce the risks of cancer by preventing overuse of plastics.

 Methods of production of Bioplastics
• Micro-organisms
• From Plants
• Direct Fermentation Process
• Bacterial Polyesters Production 
              From newspaper etc. 
 

Preparation of bioplastic from cornstarch.

The necessary materials are gathered
• 10ml distilled water
• 0.5-1.5g glycerol
• 1.5g cornstarch
• 1ml of white vinegar
• 1-2 drops food coloring
• Adult supervision is recommended

Method
Combine all of the ingredients and stir . Add all of the ingredients to a saucepan.
• If you add the wrong amounts of ingredients, just dispose of the mixture and start again.

Heat the mixture on low flame.some food colouring is added.
Once the mixture is consistent ,takeout the flame.
Results and discussion
 Bioplastic or in other word green plastic is obtained.
 Scenario in INDIA
 India is one of the most polluted countries in the world.And plastic pollution is one of the major causes
 Around 60 percent of premature deaths in India is due to pollution.In India, Bioplastics are still in their nascent stage with very few market players operating in this segment

Bioplastics and social advantages.
What makes bioplastic undeniably important is that petroleum oil price is increasing tremendously and its stock will be unavailable in the near future. It is important for the global community to have an alternative for the product derived from petroleum oil such as plastics. PHAs at least will be a solution for the most of the industries and society, which largely depend on materials made from plastic. No new inventions can escape from the limitations and drawbacks and bioplastics too have some drawbacks. The most important drawback for PHA production is its production cost As a result, the gap between the petroleum oil and PHA are becoming very narrow. The first potential application of PHA polymers was recognized in the 1960s. PHA patents cover a wide range of PHAs products such as coating and packaging, bottles, cosmetic containers, golf tees, and pens (Webb, 1990). PHAs have also been processed into fibers, for a non woven fabrics material (Son et al. 1996). PHAs can be used for all sorts of biodegradable packaging materials, including composting bags, food packaging, sanitary articles like diapers and fishing nets (Javed and Gruys 2002), biodegradable rubbers (Walle et al. 2001). PHAs are also used to develop scaffold for tissue engineering (Simmon et al. 2002), and also posses numerous applications in pharmacy and medical science.
 While bioplastics can be incredibly helpful for a better alternative for plastics like the use of bottles,bags etc,it can also pave the way for a cancer free environment.It is evident that the people who have been affected by cancer were prone to plastics.plastics could very well be one of the prime reason for it and destroy the lives of innumerable people.The chemicals that is present in it could be the carcinogen.
So bioplastics could perfectly fit in the void and can be viewed as an healthy solution.It is derived from  edible and natural biomasses which possibly could not cause any harm to the body.
They would definitely cause no cancer and this would eventually reduce the risk of cancer due to plastics.
Therefore bioplastics could easily make an impending impact in many ways that we couldn’t imagine.
It could be the next big thing that could actually help in a healthy cancer and pollution free environment.

Conclusion
Pollution is one of the main reasons for the declining health of our planet.If the use of bioplastics is encouraged, we can lead a healthy life away from the toxins and pollutants.
Also these plastics are purely derived from biomasses and does not cause any problems to humans.
They can be used alternatively for every other uses plastics has.
These plastics can be made into mounds of any shape and can be used for various purposes.
They are renewable and this property of bioplastics makes them better over plastics.
The most common disease that cause innumerable death in India is heart diseases and the most common reason for this could be plastics.So lets use bioplastics and make India a healthy and pollution free planet.

Reference