AuthenticationDatabase authentication is security method used to control access to a database. Authentication processes commonly require database users to provide a username and a password that will be unique for each account. The validation of the credentials can be done using the DBMS itself or based on external sources. One common external source is to use credentials passed from the host operating system. (Database Authentication, n.d.)AuthorizationAfter authentication occurs, the DBMS will use authorization techniques to control what specific types of access is allowed for the account. Privileges, like the capability to read or update each table, are defined as permissions. The permissions are stored in the DBMS catalog and can be applied to different databases and users in unique combinations. This process in its whole is referred to as authorization. (Database authorization, n.d.)EncryptionDatabase encryption is used to protect at-rest data that is stored in a database. Databases that do not use encryption store data in plain text; this makes it easier for a malicious attacker to gain access to sensitive information. Using encryption helps protect against attackers since at-rest data will not be useful unless it is unencrypted using a secret key. Database encryption can impact system performance, so some organizations are hesitant to use this security measure. Many compliance regulations require the use of database encryption. (Kamaraju, 2012)Change TrackingDatabase change tracking is a process that monitors each row of the database and keeps a log of when rows are changed. Change tracking only monitors that the rows have changed; it does not record any details about the changes to the content. It should not be confused with change data capturing that does track the specific changes to the data. Because change tacking doesn’t record the extra details it requires much less storage to operate. Change tracking can be used for database synchronization operations to only synchronize data that has changed since the last update.