Attention learn and prosper in an educational setting. Children

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, also known as
ADHD, is a condition that affects millions of children. ADHD is a chronic
condition that can follow children into adulthood but can be managed with
medication and therapy. ADHD can affect the child’s ability to learn and
prosper in an educational setting. Children with this condition are seen as a
disturbance to the classroom due to their difficulty concentrating and their
need to to move around constantly. Children with ADHD are often regarded as the
problem child or a nuisance even though they have very little control over
their short attention and compulsive behavior according to the U.S. Department
of Education. ADHD can be managed once the child or adult is diagnosed. People
with ADHD can lead very productive lives once the condition is diagnosed and
treated. ADHD is a manageable condition our society needs to be educated on.

            Attention
Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder does not have a known cause but extensive
research is being conducted in conjunction with the center for disease control
(CDC) and the National
Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD). Research
conducted by Paolo Curatolo, Elisa D’Agati and Romina Moavero suggest genetics,
prenatal, perinatal, postnatal, brain maturation, and brain volume are
significant causes of ADHD. Their research shows a combination of genetic and
perinatal environmental factors can lead to ADHD. Smoking or drinking alcohol
during pregnancy can cause brain abnormalities in the cerebellum.  Genes DRD4, DRD5, SLC6A3, SNAP-25, and HTR1B
in conjunction with outside environmental factors. Baby boys with the DAT1
genotype and a mother that smoked during pregnancy significantly increases the
risk the child will develop ADHD. A growing pool of research suggest
environment and genetics in conjunction with each other is the cause of ADHD.

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Attention
Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder shows symptoms in children and can be apparent
in children as young as 3-year-old. Symptoms must be present for the past six
months to be able to make a diagnosis of ADHD. Symptoms of ADHD fall into three
main categories: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Symptoms that fall
into the category inattention are characterized by not paying attention to
tasks or people talking to them and unable to focus on a task for long periods
of time. Fidgeting, being in constant motion, inappropriate behavior including
blurting out questions, having difficulty waiting their turn and running and
climbing at inappropriate times are all symptoms that fall under the
hyperactive and impulsive category. Children who have ADHD and show symptoms
are more often than not a disruption in the traditional classroom setting.
According the U.S. Department of Education children with ADHD show lower average
grades, high rate of failed classes, higher rate of failed classes, higher
dropout rate and lower completion rate at the undergraduate level. “A study by Barkley and colleagues (1990b) found that 46
percent of their student study group with ADHD had been suspended and 11
percent had been expelled.” (U.S. Department of Education, 2009) Patients with
symptoms need to be diagnosed to be treated to improve their daily live.

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder does not have a
way definitively diagnose the disorder. Doctors will do a medical exam to rule
out other diagnosis that present with the same symptoms. After, patients will
be referred to a psychiatrist who will use the diagnostic and statistical
manual of mental disorders (DSM-5), which is the national standard for
diagnosing patients with mental conditions. Psychiatrist will also use surveys
and rating scale to gather more information about the patient. Once diagnosed,
the patient will have three options for treatments: stimulant drugs, other
drugs or ADHD behavior therapy. Stimulant drugs that could be prescribed
include amphetamines, or methylphenidates. Both of the drugs are central
nervous system stimulants that promote attention and stillness. Other drugs
that could be prescribed include atomoxetine (Strattera), antidepressants (Wellbutrin),
guanfacine (Intuniv, Tenex), or clonidine (Catapres, Kapvay). Behavior
therapies can also help the patient manage symptoms and feel more normal. The
prognosis for ADHD is good if the patient is given the correct treatment.
Patient who have working treatment can lead very normal live that can be
successful. Patients who do not have an effective treatment have unmanaged
symptoms that are seen as disruptions in both schools and a workplace
environment. People with unmanaged symptoms are more likely to be unemployed
and are more likely to be suspended or expelled from school. ADHD also affects
their loved ones. A survey conducted in London showed that people with ADHD had
a more difficult time with maintaining relationships. (Refer to Index, Fig. 1,
Fig. 2)

Once diagnosed ADHD is a manageable
disease that people can live with and continue living life.  The general population needs to be better
educated on how to see the symptoms and how to treat the person with ADHD.
People with ADHD can’t help they have the symptoms but with the help of other
can live successful lives.