Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI)
is intelligence displayed by machines, in contrast with the natural intelligence (NI)
displayed by humans and other animals. The term “artificial
intelligence” is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive”
functions that humans associate with other human
minds, such as “learning” and
intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the years
since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment
and the loss of funding, followed by new approaches, success and renewed
most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that often
fail to communicate with each other. These sub-fields are based on
technical considerations, such as particular goals, the use of particular
tools, or deep philosophical differences.
The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence “can be so precisely described that a machine can
be made to simulate it”. This raises philosophical arguments about
the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed
with human-like intelligence
the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following
concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, and theoretical understanding; and AI techniques have
become an essential part of the technology industry, helping to solve many challenging problems in computer
first work that is now generally recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts’ 1943 formal design for Turing-complete “artificial neurons”.
field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth
College in 1956. By the middle of the
1960s, it was predicted that, “machines will be capable, within
twenty years, of doing any work a man can do”.
the late 1990s and early 21st century, AI began to be used for logistics, data mining, medical diagnosis and other areas. The success was due to increasing
computational power, greater emphasis on solving specific problems, new ties
between AI and other fields and a commitment by researchers to mathematical
methods and scientific standards.
the mid-2010s, machine learning applications were used throughout the world.
is relevant to any intellectual task. Modern artificial intelligence
techniques are pervasive and are too numerous to list here. Frequently, when a
technique reaches mainstream use, it is no longer considered artificial
intelligence; this phenomenon is described as the AI
Competitions and prizes
are a number of competitions and prizes to promote research in artificial
intelligence. The main areas promoted are: general machine intelligence,
conversational behaviour, data-mining, robotic
cars, robot soccer and games.
intelligence is breaking into the healthcare industry by assisting doctors.
According to Bloomberg Technology, Microsoft has developed AI to help doctors
find the right treatments for cancer. There is a great amount of research and
drugs developed relating to cancer.
in AI have contributed to the growth of the automotive industry through the
creation and evolution of self-driving vehicles. As of 2016, there are over 30
companies utilizing AI into the creation of driverless
Finance and Economics
long used artificial
neural network systems
to detect charges or claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human
Artificial intelligence is used to generate
intelligent behaviors primarily in non-player characters (NPCs), often simulating
human-like intelligence. Games that use artificial intelligence
include Sim City, Half Life, Total War, Minecraft and others.