According to Mayo Clinic, Addison’s disease is a disorder that occurs when your body produces imbalanced amounts of certain hormones produced by your adrenal glands. Addison’s disease is also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism, and hypoadrenalism. Addison’s is characterized by a consistent insufficient production of steroid hormones called glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids; Cortisol is vital in glucocorticoids, whereas aldosterone is crucial in mineralocorticoids. Cortisol has many functions including maintaining a consistent blood glucose level, reducing inflammation, and regulating water balance. On the other hand, aldosterone primarily maintains sodium and water balance, which are necessary for keeping consistent blood volume and pressure. Both cortisol and aldosterone are produced by the adrenal glands: small endocrine glands that rest on top of both kidneys. The adrenal glands have two layers—medulla the inner layer and cortex the outer layer— In most cases of Addison’s disease, the cells that make up the adrenal cortex are destroyed. The destruction of these cells results in Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: cortisol and aldosterone are simply not produced. This is different from secondary insufficiency, in which either one or both hormones are made, but the body is unable to use them properly. Primary adrenal insufficiency is caused by an autoimmune response in which the body’s immune system mistakes its own cells or biochemicals for pathogens. Specifically, the body sees some part of a pathway used by the body for synthesis or used cortisol and aldosterone as a threat to target its destruction. Other causes of primary adrenal insufficiency are adrenal dysgenesis which is a genetic disorder in which the adrenal glands aren’t formed properly, difficulty in converting cholesterol to steroid hormones, infection from HIV and tuberculosis, and another disease that impair the adrenal cortex like adrenoleukodystrophy and cancer.