# ABSTRACT by creating an open system and

ABSTRACT

Energy is the most important source in the world, it is well defined as the ability to do work or heat transfer . The issues surrounding energy are its sources, production, distribution and consumption. The study of fundamental foundations of thermodynamics gives and idea about energy and transfer of heat through calorimetry technique. Calorimetry is a technique used to measure into and out of a matter. In this experiment we will measure heat flow into and out of matter by creating an open system and a close system of ice, liquid water and harm water respectively, and measure the temperature change of the system by placing thermometer into the system for 3 minutes at 15 seconds intervals. If heat energy flows out of the system , the energy transferred to the matter and to the walls of the calorimeter causes a rise in temperature of the matter. The change in temperature can be measured as the difference between the final and initial temperatures of the matter in the calorimeter.
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INTRODUCTION
The science of heat flow or energy flow, is called thermodynamics. Heat energy flows spontaneously from hotter body to colder body. The First Law of Thermodynamics also known as law of conservation energy which states that in a process energy cannot be created nor destroyed, it can be transferred between a system and the surroundings and can be converted from one form to another, but the total energy of the universe remains constant . Therefore, all energy transferred between a system and its surroundings is determined as either heat(q) or work(w).
Energy is measured in joules, It takes 4.184 J which equals 1 calorie to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1° C. The quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1° C is called specific heat (S). The heat capacity (C) of a substance is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a substance by 1° C. Different from specific heat, the heat capacity does not account for the mass of the matter. The quantity of heat needed to melt one gram of a solid is called a heat of fusion(?)
In this experiment we will pay our attention on one particular area of thermodynamics, namely calorimetry which is a technique used to measure heat flow into and out of matter. Our system is created in a container called a calorimeter that separates the thermal process we are interested in studying from the rest of the universe. As changes occur to that matter, we can follow the movement of heat from one portion of the matter to another by observing temperature changes. The container we use as a calorimeter should thermally insulate the matter we are interested in studying, it should prevent matter from entering or exiting once our measurement has begun, and it should allow for easy measurement of temperature changes. The heat transfer in a calorimeter may be expressed with the following equation:
Q = mS?T
The heat transferred is Q is measured in joules or calories, the specific heat is S, and ?T is the change in temperature.

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EQUIPMENT AND REAGENTS
Styrofoam cups
Ice 100 mL
Cardboard lid with a hole
Water
Hot plate
Thermometer (-10 to 110 °C)
50 mL Beaker
Stop Watch
PROCEDURE
The Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter.
1. Create an open-system of Ice (solid water) and measure the temperature change of the system by placing a thermometer into the system for 4minutes at 15 seconds intervals.
2. Heat/boil 100ml of liquid water to a range of 60-80°C
3. Repeat step 1, by creating an open system of hot water.
4. Create a closed-system of Ice (solid water) and measure the temperature change of the system by placing a thermometer into the system for 4minutes at 15 seconds intervals.
5. Repeat step 4, by creating a closed-system of warm water.
6. Measure 50ml of hot water in a Styrofoam and 50ml of ice (solid water) in separate Styrofoam. Create a closed system by pouring the two prepared contents into a new Styrofoam cup, making a total 100ml of liquid water and ice. Measure the temperature variation for 4 minutes at 10 seconds intervals
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