Abstract access information in school or home. In this

Abstract

The 21st century has witnessed an unbelievable flow in technological improvement, and perhaps nowhere is this trend more evident than in the arena of literacy, wherein the written word has now been rendered more available and accessible than ever. It has reshaped how nowadays generation read, write, and access information in school or home. In this paper the researcher examined about reading popular culture of youth readers that use different reading style such as traditional books and Electronic books. The guiding question for the study was Which ones is more popular to youth in reading e-books versus traditional Books? What is youth preferred features in reading e-books versus traditional books. This research is a descriptive survey method and the population included 20 students from different school at Bondowoso. Students appraisement in reading an E-books compared to traditional books recorded through the use of questionnaire. Based on the result, youth generation a bit prefers more in using printed text in their daily or school reading activities even though electronic books prefer more features than traditional books.

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Keywords:  Descriptive, Electronic Book, Traditional Book, Literacy, Popular Culture, Youth.

 

1.      Introduction

The 21st century has witnessed an unbelievable flow in technological improvement, and perhaps nowhere is this trend more evident than in the arena of literacy, wherein the written word has now been rendered more available and accessible than ever. It has reshaped how nowadays generation write, read, and access many kinds of information in school or home.  In the term of literacy, there was a study before about the World’s Most Literate Nation, this study conducted by Central Connecticut State University in the US. In the term of reading interest, Indonesia position is ranks 60th out of 61 countries, below Thailand in 59th and above Botswana in 61st position. This data shows that Indonesia utilization of the available infrastructure is very low, added (Anies,2016). Indonesian people still not maximize the uses of libraries, books and mobile libraries. Mobile libraries E-book technology has played a key role in this transitional diaspora from the paper page to the Web page and it can reduce or even settle the lack of infrastructure of reading in our country. Mobile libraries or E-readers are electronic devices that can display and store hundreds of books in one device with or without the Internet connection, when it has an access to internet it facilitating to even more books.

The use of digital devices as mobile libraries or reading tools has garnered increased importance as school movements to paperless classrooms across the globe (Giebelhausen, 2015; Shishkovskaya, Sokolova, & Chernaya, 2015). These paperless classrooms allow the reader to highlight important information, modify, add the information, and search related information outside of the text with only the click of a button. Indonesia, with these kind of developments, only cover 60% of schools by 2017 had access to a computer in their schools, currently around 12,058 schools and madrasah ready to implement Computer Based National Test (Rihad,2017). Moreover, even outside the classroom process, people are engaged in online reading. These figures increase the fundamental question of how the use of such digital reading devices might potentially change perceptions of what it means to read and the comprehension for better or for worse results.

Since computers and mobile phone started making their way into youth’s home and school in the late twentieth century, there are so many researchers interested in researching the effects of reading text on screens as opposed to traditional paper sources, and many of the findings have implications for learning. For example, people are slower when they reading from an E-book than from traditional book (Muter et al., 1982; Mayes, Sims, & Koonce, 2001). Skimming also takes more time on E-book than from traditional one (Muter & Maurutto, 1991). Other methods indicate further benefits for traditional book or paper. In a study by Wastlund et al. (2005), people’s understanding was found to be higher when reading traditional books. Noyes, Garland, and Robbins (2004) found in their research that although as general comprehension was not significantly different between E-book than from traditional book conditions, people reading screens in their mobile phone or computer caused more stressed and tired than traditional books readers.

These results from previous research seem to indicate that for all of the advances made in technology of mobile reader or E-Book, Traditional book still “feels” better to most people. However, the performance gap between electronic and traditional reading has generally been thinning in recent years as new technologies upgrade and improve the weaknesses of electronic reading or as people generally become more familiar with technology itself. That is why in this paper, the writer examined about reading popular culture of youth readers that traditional books and multimodal literacy in Electronic books. It is focused to survey the young people’s reading devices whether they like to use E-Books or traditional Books because each era has its own people and its own way to learn something new. By learning the young generation’s popular culture of reading style. Hopefully it will help the future research to improve the literacy motivation strategies to make the next generation more literate. In order to understand the effectiveness of the application, three research questions were presented.

1.         Which ones is more popular to youth in reading e-books versus traditional Books?

2.         What is youth preferred features in reading e-books versus traditional books?

 

2.      Theoritical Background

In our daily life, Popular culture becomes the focus of the public sphere and it is hard to neglect or avoid. Actually, popular culture is mostly run by commercial interests, which are concerned with profit. However, popular culture is a set where society has a voice, and an interest. Popular culture is the chat or discussion starter at school and at social occasions except on rare occasions like, presidential elections, and national tragedies. It often obliges as social “glue” and a social divider which mean friendships solidify around a shared interest for a particular music, style of youth, activity and being outside of the currents of the popular can lead somebody to social isolation. Popular culture is also an essential to the public circle, for instances It used by some politician to promoting himself on some talk shows, and other examples like nowadays television programs produce episodes that address lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender and themes related to LGBT. Thus, popular culture is not basically fluff that can be dismissed as insignificant and irrelevant; on the contrary, it has the capability to intervene in the most critical civic issues and to shape public opinion. (Dolby, 2003, pp. 258-259)

 

If we discuss about popular culture, what is pop-culture that we think about? Are hobbies, shows, music and television popular culture? What about local festival, events, gossips, or even the topic that researcher discuss, about the youth preferred reading devices, by e-book or traditional book? Is it also popular culture? What about internet? Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and all media social that we use? What about hasthag that we use to indicate something in photo or status in our Instagram such as #kidsjamannow #savepalestine #saynotodrugs, are they parts or popular culture? Are there differences and requirements to be made within popular culture? What isn’t popular culture?

As these questions demonstrate, defining popular culture is at best difficult. Other researcher has noted that trying to define popular culture “is like nailing gelatin to a wall” (Alvermann, Xu, & Carpenter, 2003, p. 146). Even though it may be, and perhaps undesirable, to arrive at a singular definition of popular culture, it is worthwhile to overview some general understandings of popular culture. In general, popular culture is conceptualized as part of a larger project of Cultural Studies, especially as developed through the work of the Centre for Contemporary Culture Studies CCCS hereafter at the University of Birmingham, England beginning in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The CCCS reshaped the study of popular culture by re conceptualizing the concepts of culture and popular.

The CCCS conceptualized popular as a contested space in which competing interests get negotiated and reworked. They resisted—and in many ways were functioning in response to—the idea that popular culture was simply a mass culture developed and imposed by the culture industry to manipulate undiscriminating recipients with texts. Similarly, they acknowledged that popular culture was not entirely a folk or authentic culture emerging from the ground up or from “the people” without mediation from the culture industry. Neither entirely oppressive nor liberating, CCCS scholars understood popular culture as a complicated terrain of exchange between people and the culture industry, one in which the commodities produced by the culture industry are in dynamic interplay with those who consume them, or “a shifting balance of forces between resistance and incorporation” (Storey, 2009, p. 106). In other words, popular culture gets produced through the interactions between texts and people. As Moje and van Helden (2004) explain, Popular culture is simultaneously a product of people’s imaginations, curiosities, and expressions and an institution with goals of shaping desires and needs, selling products, and manipulating imaginations and expressions. Popular culture is made as people live in the everyday world, and it is made by both people living out their lives and industries trying to sell people goods. (p. 219)

Like all people, young people use popular cultural texts and experiences in unpredictable ways to make sense of and take power in their worlds. What is more, close-up studies of youth often show youth to be making productive uses of literacy, to be sophisticated users of print and other forms, and even to be kind and generous people who are concerned about making a difference in the world. (Moje, 2002, p. 116)

 

3.      Methodology

This descriptive research paper use survey method as its approach. Descriptive research can be described as a statement of concerns as they are at present with the writer or researcher not having control over researched variable. Moreover, descriptive research may be characterized as simply the attempt to determine, describe or identify what is, while analytical research attempts to establish why it is that way or how it came to be (Jackson 1999). In survey method research, participants answer questions which administered by researcher through interviews or questionnaires. After participants which in this case youth generation in Bondowoso answer the questions, researchers explain the responses given. In order for the survey to be both valid and reliable it is important that the questions are constructed properly.  Questions should be written so participants understand and easy to comprehend the question. There four designs in designing question such as, open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions.

The researcher developed a questionnaire to assess young people’s attitudes and preferences concerning e-books technology versus traditional books in an effort to better inform guidelines for e-books design. The researcher first collected standard demographic data concerning age, gender, school, their reading activities average in a week. Second, during writing the question for survey of this research related to research question. The researcher uses rating-scale question and close-ended question. Open-ended questions allow the respondent or participant to give a greater variety of responses, but it makes the statistic analyze difficultly because the collected data must be coded or reduced in some manner.  Closed-ended questions which this paper uses are easy to analyze statistically. The researcher limits the responses that participants can give.  Partially open-ended is mixed design of open and closed-ended question, mean while rating-scale question is the question design which offer participants rating-scale question (Jackson, 2009, p. 89).

On this paper during answering the firs research question of this study. In order to know which ones is more popular to youth in reading e-books versus traditional Books. Participants were asked to rate their preference for using e-books or traditional books when reading for either leisure and in their school on a rating-scale question design. The scale explains the preference of the youth, the scale 1 is for exclusively e-book to scale 6 for exclusively traditional book.

This paper uses close-ended design in limiting the participant response for the second question research. In order to know the youth preferred features in reading e-books versus traditional books the researcher created a short list of the advantageous of e-books and traditional features such as incorporation of a search function, portability, environmental friendliness and Internet connectivity and asked participants the youth to select the feature that was most persuasive with regard to their use of e-book reading systems in e-book features. Meanwhile, in traditional books features, it offers close-ended response such as relative cost compared with e-books, the fact that they require no batteries or charging, the prospect of not losing one’s entire library because of theft or damage, the unrestricted use of traditional books in various settings.

 

4.      Result and Discussion

4.1  Demographic data.

Participants were recruited via Whatsapp mobile application focused and limited only to local youth in Bondowoso, they come from local schools, see table 1. All of the contacted respondents use Whatsapp mobile application, so it has been confirmed that all of the participants already experienced in reading e-book.

 

 

Table 1 Demographic data of youth in Bondowoso

Name

Gender

School

Age

Reading average hr/week

Mohammad Zhuhrufur R

L

MA Atqia

16

14

Salsabila

P

MA Atqia

18

9

Nadifah

P

MA Atqia

18

9

Syamirah

P

MA Atqia

17

5

Mochammad Iqbal A F

L

SMA 1 Bondowoso

18

12

Erika Krismunia

P

SMA 1 Bondowoso

18

9

Farimatuzzahra

P

SMA 1 Bondowoso

17

10

Aulia Akbar Madani

L

SMA 2 Bondowoso

18

6

Majdah Fakhiroh

P

SMA 2 Bondowoso

18

5

Arfiatus Soleha

P

SMA 2 Bondowoso

18

5

Abdurrahman Wahid

L

MTS AT-Taqwa

15

7

Rizqiatul Hasanah

P

MTS AT-Taqwa

15

6

Nurul Kholifah

P

MTS AT-Taqwa

14

5

Riska Oktavia Damayanti

P

MTS AT-Taqwa

13

6

Ahmad Ghufron

L

SMP 1 Bondowoso

14

5

Tamam Adicahya

L

SMP 1 Bondowoso

15

8

Ageng Setiawan

L

SMP 2 Bondowoso

15

9

Muhammad Nasrullah

L

SMP 2 Bondowoso

14

9

Abdul Muiz

L

SMP 3 Bondowoso

13

5

Ilham

L

SMP 3 Bondowoso

14

7

 

As mentioned above, he researcher collected data from a total of 20 participants (12 females), 10 from senior high school and the other half is from junior high school with an average age of 16 years (SD = 1,841 years). Participants reported engaging in reading for an average of 7,55 hr per week (SD = 2,499 hr).

 

4.2  Preference for e-books versus traditional books.

Participants were asked to rate their preference for using e-books or traditional books when reading for either leisure and in their school on a rating-scale question. The scale explains the preference of the youth, the scale 1 is for exclusively e-book to scale 6 for exclusively traditional book.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2 One sample statistic on preference on leisure and school activities

Preference

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

 

Leisure

20

4.1000

1.97084

.44069

 

School

20

4.4000

1.75919

.39337

 

 

 

 

 

 

From the statistics mentioned above, it can be concluded that the averages for leisure/fun activities (M = 4.10, SD = 1.970) and in their school (M = 4.40, SD = 1.759) this result that the youth generation in Bondowoso indicate a small yet pervasive preference for traditional books when reading than electronic books.

 

4.3  Preferred features in e-books versus traditional books.

The reseacher created a short list of the advantageous of e-books features such as incorporation of a search function, portability, environmental friendliness and Internet connectivity and asked participants the youth to select the feature that was most persuasive with regard to their use of e-book reading systems. As is illustrated in Figure 1, respondents or young people in Bondowoso were prefer drawn to e-readers because of their internet connectivity.

The researcher also formulated a corresponding list of features for traditional books like their relative cost compared with e-books, the fact that they require no batteries or charging, the prospect of not losing one’s entire library because of theft or damage, the unrestricted use of traditional books in various settings. Figure 2 illustrates that youth generation in Bondowoso favor traditional books because print books eliminate the threat of power loss and obviate the inconvenient need for charging facilities.

Figure 1. preferred features in e-books

Figure 2. preferred features in traditional books

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

These data are interesting because it shows that young people prefers to choses their reading devices based on how the devices prefer more information, more data or memory of reading material. The youth nowadays really understand how important information are. It proofed that how they choose internet connectivity features of e-book to search more information and kept their data safely by choose no total lose in traditional books features.

Surprisingly There were no significant main effects of relative cost which inexpensiveness compared to e-books prices to make youth prefer traditional books than e-books. These results suggest that youth consumers perceive e-books to be similarly economical compared with traditional books, despite the issues surrounding the expense, nowadays youth understand that information and knowledge is priceless compared to money.

Youth prefer to choose traditional book in terms of power or no battery requirements when compared than e-book. Moreover, as an example case, if they were to take their mobile e-book on a long journey, they need to maximize the amount of reading material such as storage capacity. E-books also has a risk to loss power and connectivity in long or alienate journey.

Based on this close-ended question design. E-books therefore seem to have the relative upper hand in fulfilling nowadays youth needs because technology always improve each year to cover their weaknesses like power or connectivity. However, based on table 2, e-book does not appear to be main preferred devices for youth, perhaps because some of them are distracted by the novelty of ascendant e-book technology, like media social, game, etc.

 

5.      Conclusion

In general, this descriptive research result revealed that youth generation in Bondowoso a bit prefers more in using printed text or traditional book in their daily or school reading activities. Even though electronic books perceived as easier to use, have more featured, and more immersive than traditional book. Patricia Greenfield (2009) has observed that while video games video games, television and the internet may foster visual intelligence of reader, “the cost seems to be deep processing: mindful knowledge acquisition, inductive analysis, critical thinking, imagination, and reflection.” However, the ultimate decision as to whether to make use of e-book technology lies with the inclination of the youth reader. The advantages and disadvantages of various issues we have presented are disproportionately desirable and tolerable to each individual user. Some of them prefer to use traditional book than e-book perhaps because of the distraction of the technologies.

 

6.      Further Research

We all know that Digital technology is still in its relative infancy. It can be an incredibly useful educational tool, but we need much more research before we can draw firm conclusions about its positive and negative features. In the case of reading, our first task is to make ourselves aware of the effect technology potentially has on how we wrap our minds around the written word when encountered in print versus onscreen. Our second task is to embed that understanding in our larger thinking about the role of writing as a means of communicating and thinking. An interesting question for future research is to know the effectiveness or usefulness e-reader vs traditional book. It would also be interesting to study how the other multimodal digital literacies possibilities such as the youth preference in visual novel, graphic novel, audio novel would, how these multimodal literacy devices affect youth reading style effectiveness.