1. worth anything by itself, it is only


1. An instrumental value is something that is valuable
for the reason that it assists in bringing out other good things. An example of
something that is instrumentally valuable is money. Money isn’t worth anything by
itself, it is only used as a means to achieve something with value. On the other
hand, something that is intrinsically valuable is something that has value in
itself regardless of other factors. An example of something that is
intrinsically valuable is happiness. Happiness is something that is valuable
independently from everything else. The relationship between the two is that
instrumental goods are able to bring about something that is intrinsically
valuable; money can be used as a stepping stone to achieve happiness. Money is
not valuable on its own but can be used to afford healthy food, a nice car or a
dream vacation and therefore lead to happiness, something that is intrinsically


4. Consequentialism is
an ethical theory based on the actual results and ramifications of an action. An
action is morally right and must be carried out if it results in the best
outcome and cost:benefit ratio. The opposite applies to a scenario with a poor cost:benefit
ratio, it should not be performed and is deemed morally wrong. Utilitarianism
is an ethical theory which states that an action is morally right if it
benefits one’s well being the most; well-being is the only thing that is intrinsically
valuable in Utilitarianism. The benefits in utilitarianism are pleasure and
happiness, and the costs are unhappiness and pain, which in other words, in utitarianism
an act is morally right when the action creates the best cost:benefit ratio
that produces the best improvement to one’s well being. Since utilitarianism acknowledges
the most important factor whether an action is morally right or wrong as
creating the best cost:benefit ratio just like consequentialism does, it proves
that utilitarianism is a kind of consequentialist moral theory.

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6. Deontology is a
moral theory in which rules, duties or obligations are emphasized as the most important
factors. The word “deontology” roots from the Greek word “deon” which
translates to “necessity” or “obligation”. In Kantianism, one should only do
something if it is their moral duty. An action is deemed morally right if it is
one’s moral duty and they completed it solely for the reason that is their
moral duty. Although, Kant does acknowledge that autonomy is important and one
has the control to decide their own moral duties to follow rather than solely
following external suggested duties. Kantian ethics prioritizes moral duties as
all deontological moral theories do, proving that is fits under the category suitably.


8. In the perspective
of Kantianism as well as utilitarianism, the statement “Happiness is always good.”
is false. In Kantianism the statement is proven incorrect for the reason that
autonomy is more important and happiness is not always as valuable as good will
is. Kant mentions that happiness can be sourced from wrongdoings which
diminishes the value of happiness. For example, if murdering people makes
someone happy, the happiness that the person achieves just makes the act worse rather
than better proving that happiness is not always good. Secondly, the statement
is false from the view of utilitarianism because one’s well-being is most
important regardless if it makes them happy or not. For example, if one needs
to have a major surgery to amputate their hand in order for them to stay alive,
it is going to cause unhappiness but it is their well being that is being put
first and is most important in that situation. Another example would be if a married
person having an affair thought the affair was making them happy, their well
being would eventually be diminished as soon as their spouse finds out,
divorces them and kicks them out of their house proving that their well-being should
be more important than happiness or, in this case, temporary happiness. The
happiness that they were experiencing at the time was not necessarily good.


9. The morally relevant
property according to utilitarianism is all sentient beings, all living
creatures that can experience both pleasure and pain. For example, humans, dogs,
and monkeys are all included because they can experience feelings. The morally
relevant property according to Kantianism is rational beings only. A rational
being is a living creature that uses reason or logic in thinking out a problem
(Collins Dictionary, n.d.). This excludes all beings that are irrational even
if they can feel pleasure and pain. This would include animals that follow
instincts not reasoning. Humans can reason whether to do something or not for
example if there was food on the other size of cluster of rose bushes they
would either find a way around the rose bushes or just opt out of going for the
food all together. In the case of an animal such as a squirrel, even though it
would still experience the same pain from the injuries of the rose bushes, and
pleasure from the food, it would still sacrifice its well-being to follow its
natural instincts to get the food.