1. Use the Web site above to answer these questions about the creation of heavy elements. (10 points)
a. Which were the first heavy elements to be created in a laboratory, and where and when were they created? (2 points)
The first heavy elements to be created in a laboratory were Neptunium (93) and Plutonium (94). The were created in a lab at University of California at Berkeley in 1940.
b. Briefly summarize how heavy elements are created. (3 points)
Heavy elements are created by fusing two elements together in a lab.
c. How do scientists know that they have created a new element? What kind of evidence do they look for? (Hint: Read the section under “Forty Days and Forty Nights,” and scroll down to the diagram at the bottom of the page.) (2 points)
They look for “events” that comprise a series of alpha decays that result in spontaneous fission.
d. Look at the decay sequence for element 114 at the bottom of the page. How long did it take element 114 to decay to become the following: (3 points)
element 112? It took 15.4 minutes for element 114 to become element 112.
element 110? It took 1.6 minutes for element 114 to become element 110.
element 108? It took 16.5 minutes for element 114 to become element 108
Why was the creation of element 114 so special? Scientists had predicted that certain isotopes of element 114 could be more stable than other heavy isotopes. Scroll to the section near the top of the Web site titled “A Primer on Stability and Instability.” Read this section.
2. Answer these questions about the stability of heavy elements. (6 points)
a. How is the nuclear structure of an atom similar to the non nuclear structure? (2 points)
The structure of a nuclear atom is similar to the structure of a nuclear atom in the way that they both surrounded by one or more orbital shells of electrons.
b. Why are some nuclei more stable than others? (2 points)
A nuclei is more stable when the shells of the protons and neutrons are filled completely. The opposite applies to instability. When the shells of the protons and neutrons are less full, the nuclei is less stable.
c. What does the group number of element 114 have to do with its stability? (2 points)
The group number of element 114 is a peak on the map of isotopes meaning it will be a stable element.
3. Stay on the same Web site and scroll up to the “Map of the Voyage to the Island of Stability.” Using what you have just learned, summarize the meaning of the map. (4 points)
The map shows the past or journey to creating a stable element. However the map also shows that in order to reach this “Island of Stability” the element will have to pass several tests.
The Web site below allows you to search a database to determine the isotopes for all elements.
Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions
4. If you were a scientist working with heavy elements, which isotopes would you try to fuse to create the most stable heavy element? Explain your choices. Use a periodic table, the isotope database, and the article you have just read to answer this question. (5 points)
In order to create the most stable heavy element I would use two very stable isotopes that are also doubly magic. I think I would use Tin for oe element because it has ten stable isotopes which is the largest known number for an element. I think I would combine this will carbon as it is another stable element.